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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________________________________________
FORM 20-F

  Registration statement pursuant to Section 12(b) or (g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
or
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
  Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                           to                          
or
  Shell company report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report:                          
Commission file number: 1-14832
___________________________________________________________________
CELESTICA INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Ontario, Canada
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
5140 Yonge Street, Suite 1900
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M2N 6L7
(Address of principal executive offices)
Craig Oberg
416-448-2211
clsir@celestica.com
5140 Yonge Street, Suite 1900
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M2N 6L7
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
___________________________________________________________________
SECURITIES REGISTERED OR TO BE REGISTERED
PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Title of each class:Trading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered:
Subordinate Voting SharesCLSThe Toronto Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
___________________________________________________________________
SECURITIES REGISTERED OR TO BE REGISTERED
PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:
N/A
__________________________________________________________________
SECURITIES FOR WHICH THERE IS A REPORTING OBLIGATION
PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(d) OF THE ACT:
N/A
___________________________________________________________________
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
110,450,723 Subordinate Voting Shares0Preference Shares
  18,600,193 Multiple Voting Shares 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 Large accelerated filer ☒                                     Accelerated filer ☐                                    Non-accelerated filer ☐      Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
†The term "new or revised financial accounting standard" refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP ☐                       International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☒                        Other ☐
If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ☒



TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Compensation
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Part I.
        In this Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020 (referred to herein as "this Annual Report"), "Celestica," the "Corporation," the "Company," "we," "us" and "our" refer to Celestica Inc. and its subsidiaries.
        In this Annual Report, the United States is referred to as the "U.S.", and all dollar amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars, except where we state otherwise. All references to "U.S.$" or "$" are to U.S. dollars and all references to "C$" are to Canadian dollars. Unless we indicate otherwise, any reference in this Annual Report to a conversion between U.S.$ and C$ is a conversion at the average of the exchange rates in effect for the year ended December 31, 2020. During that period, based on the relevant noon buying rates in New York City for cable transfers in Canadian dollars, as certified for customs purposes by the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, the average daily exchange rate was U.S.$1.00 = C$1.3422.
        Unless we indicate otherwise, all information in this Annual Report is stated as of February 22, 2021.
Forward-Looking Statements
Item 3(D), "Key Information — Risk Factors," Item 4, "Information on the Company," Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects" and other sections of this Annual Report contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the U.S. Securities Act, Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the U.S. Exchange Act, and forward-looking information within the meaning of applicable Canadian securities laws (collectively, forward-looking statements), including, without limitation, statements related to: anticipated and potential adverse impacts resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 and related mutations (COVID-19); our priorities, intended areas of focus, targets, objectives and goals (including, but not limited to, those set forth under the caption "Celestica's Strategy" in Item 4(B), and the captions "Operating Goals and Priorities" and "Our Strategy" in Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects"); trends in the electronics manufacturing services (EMS) industry and our segments (including the components thereof), and their anticipated impact; the anticipated impact of specified adverse market conditions in each of our segments (and/or component businesses) and near-term expectations (positive and negative); anticipated restructuring actions; the funding of our restructuring provision; the anticipated annualized impact of disengagements related to our Connectivity & Cloud Solutions segment portfolio review (CCS Review); our anticipated financial and/or operating results; our growth and diversification strategies and plans (and potential hindrances thereto); our credit risk; the anticipated impact of program wins, transfers, losses or disengagements; anticipated expenses, capital expenditures and other working capital requirements and contractual obligations; our intended repatriation of certain undistributed earnings from foreign subsidiaries; the relocation of our Hong Kong data center; diversity and inclusion; the potential impact of tax and litigation outcomes; our anticipated ability to use certain net operating losses; intended investments in our business and associated risks; the potential impact of the pace of technological changes, customer outsourcing, program transfers, and the global economic environment; expectations with respect to cash deposits; the intended method of funding subordinate voting share (SVS) repurchases; materials constraints; the lease for our temporary and new corporate headquarters; a new Atrenne Integrated Solutions, Inc. (Atrenne) site; Toronto transition costs; the impact of our outstanding indebtedness; liquidity and the sufficiency of our capital resources; our intention (when in our discretion) to settle outstanding equity awards with SVS; our financial statement estimates and assumptions; recently-issued accounting pronouncements and amendments; the potential impact of price reductions and longer payment terms; our compliance with covenants under our credit facility; the potential adverse impacts of events outside of our control, including, among others: Britain's departure from the European Union (Brexit), policies or legislation instituted or proposed by the former or new administration in the U.S., uncertainty surrounding the impact of the new administration in the U.S.; recent tariffs on items imported into the U.S. and related countermeasures, and/or the impact of, in addition to COVID-19, other widespread illness or disease (External Events); mandatory prepayments under our credit facility; interest rates; pension plan funding requirements and the impact of annuity purchases; our income tax incentives; the anticipated impact of COVID-19-related government relief measures; our intention to submit claims for, and the anticipated receipt of, COVID-19-related government subsidies, grants or credits (COVID Subsidies); accounts payable cash flow levels; sales under our accounts receivable sales program; internal relocation costs; our cash generating units with goodwill; our future warranty obligations; our expectations with respect to cybersecurity threats; our intentions with respect to environmental assessments for newly-leased or acquired properties; our expectations with respect to expiring leases; anticipated insignificant hedge ineffectiveness of our interest rate swap agreements; the pay-for-performance alignment of our executive compensation program; our intention to retain earnings for general corporate purposes; and costs in connection with our pursuit of acquisitions and strategic transactions. Such forward-looking statements may, without limitation, be preceded by, followed by, or include words such as "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "intends," "plans," "continues," "project," "potential," "possible," "contemplate," "seek," or similar expressions, or may employ such future or conditional verbs as "may," "might," "will," "could," "should" or "would," or may otherwise be indicated as forward-looking statements by grammatical construction, phrasing or context. For those statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking
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statements contained in the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, where applicable, and applicable Canadian securities laws.

Forward-looking statements are provided to assist readers in understanding management's current expectations and plans relating to the future. Readers are cautioned that such information may not be appropriate for other purposes. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements, including, among others, as is described in more detail in Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors and elsewhere in this Annual Report, risks related to:
customer and segment concentration;
challenges of replacing revenue from completed, lost or non-renewed programs or customer disengagements;
our customers' ability to compete and succeed using our products and services;
price, margin pressures, and other competitive factors and adverse market conditions affecting, and the highly competitive nature of, the EMS industry in general and our segments in particular (including the risk that anticipated market improvements do not materialize);
changes in our mix of customers and/or the types of products or services we provide, including negative impacts of higher concentrations of lower margin programs;
the cyclical and volatile nature of our semiconductor business;
delays in the delivery and availability of components, services and materials;
managing changes in customer demand;
rapidly evolving and changing technologies, and changes in our customers' business or outsourcing strategies;
the expansion or consolidation of our operations;
volatility in the commercial aerospace industry;
the inability to maintain adequate utilization of our workforce;
the nature of the display market;
defects or deficiencies in our products, services or designs;
integrating and achieving the anticipated benefits from acquisitions and "operate-in-place" arrangements;
compliance with customer-driven policies and standards, and third-party certification requirements;
challenges associated with new customers or programs, or the provision of new services;
the impact of our restructuring actions and/or productivity initiatives, including a failure to achieve anticipated benefits from actions associated with our CCS Review (including our disengagement from programs with Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco Disengagement);
negative impacts on our business resulting from outstanding third-party indebtedness;
the incurrence of future restructuring charges, impairment charges, other write-downs of assets or operating losses;
managing our business during uncertain market, political and economic conditions, including among others, geopolitical and other risks associated with our international operations, including military actions, protectionism and reactive countermeasures, economic or other sanctions or trade barriers;
disruptions to our operations, or those of our customers, component suppliers and/or logistics partners, including as a result of External Events;
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the scope, duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including its severe, prolonged and continuing adverse impact on the commercial aerospace industry due to quarantines, travel restrictions, business curtailments, resurgences and mutations of the virus and safety concerns;
changes to our operating model;
changing commodity, materials and component costs as well as labor costs and conditions;
execution and quality issues (including our ability to successfully resolve these challenges);
non-performance by counterparties;
maintaining sufficient financial resources to fund currently anticipated financial actions and obligations and to pursue desirable business opportunities;
negative impacts on our business resulting from any significant uses of cash, securities issuances, and/or additional increases in third-party indebtedness (including as a result of an inability to sell desired amounts under our uncommitted accounts receivable sales program);
foreign currency volatility;
our global operations and supply chain;
competitive bid selection processes;
customer relationships with emerging companies;
recruiting or retaining skilled talent;
our dependence on industries affected by rapid technological change;
our ability to adequately protect intellectual property and confidential information;
increasing taxes, tax audits, and challenges of defending our tax positions;
obtaining, renewing or meeting the conditions of tax incentives and credits;
computer viruses, malware, hacking attempts or outages that may disrupt our operations;
the inability to prevent or detect all errors or fraud;
the variability of revenue and operating results;
unanticipated disruptions to our cash flows;
compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and government subsidies, grants or credits;
the management of our information technology systems;
our pension and other benefit plan obligations;
failure to qualify for and/or collect anticipated COVID Subsidies;
changes in accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions;
our ability to maintain compliance with applicable credit facility covenants;
interest rate fluctuations and changes to LIBOR;
deterioration in financial markets or the macro-economic environment;
our credit rating;
the interest of our controlling shareholder;
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current or future litigation, governmental actions, and/or changes in legislation or accounting standards;
negative publicity; and
our ability to achieve our environmental, social and governance (ESG) initiative goals, including with respect to climate change.
The foregoing and other material risks and uncertainties are discussed in our public filings, which can be found at www.sedar.com and www.sec.gov, including in this Annual Report, and subsequent reports on Form 6-K furnished to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and as applicable, the Canadian Securities Administrators.
Our forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report are based on various assumptions, many of which involve factors that are beyond our control. Our material assumptions include those related to the following:
the scope and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on our sites, customers and supply chain;

our ability to qualify for specified COVID Subsidies;
fluctuation of production schedules from our customers in terms of volume and mix of products or services;
the timing and execution of, and investments associated with, ramping new business;
the success of our customers' products;
our ability to retain programs and customers;
the stability of general economic and market conditions, currency exchange rates and interest rates;
supplier performance, pricing and terms;
compliance by third parties with their contractual obligations and the accuracy of their representations and warranties;
the costs and availability of components, materials, services, equipment, labor, energy and transportation;
that our customers will retain liability for recently-imposed tariffs and countermeasures;
global tax legislation changes;
our ability to keep pace with rapidly changing technological developments;
the timing, execution and effect of restructuring actions;
the successful resolution of quality issues that arise from time to time;
our having sufficient financial resources to fund currently anticipated financial actions and obligations and to pursue desirable business opportunities;
the components of our leverage ratio (as defined in our credit facility); 
our ability to successfully diversify our customer base and develop new capabilities;
the availability of cash resources for, and the permissibility under our credit facility of, repurchases of outstanding SVS under our current normal course issuer bid (NCIB), and compliance with applicable laws and regulations pertaining to NCIBs;
the impact of actions associated with the CCS Review (including the Cisco Disengagement) on our business, and that we achieve the anticipated benefits therefrom;
anticipated demand strength in certain of our businesses; and

anticipated demand weakness in, and/or the impact of anticipated adverse market conditions on, certain of our businesses.
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While management believes these assumptions to be reasonable under current circumstances, they may prove to be inaccurate, which could cause actual results to differ materially (and adversely) from those that would have been achieved had such assumptions been accurate.
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and we disclaim any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law. You should read this Annual Report, and the documents, if any, that we incorporate herein by reference, with the understanding that our actual results may be materially different from what we expect.
All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified by the cautionary statements included in this Annual Report.
Item 1.    Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.
Item 2.    Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
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Item 3.    Key Information
A.    Selected Financial Data

You should read the following selected financial data together with Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects," the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18, and the other information in this Annual Report. The selected financial data presented below is derived from our Consolidated Financial Statements, which are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). See Item 18. No dividends have been declared by the Corporation.
Year ended December 31
20162017201820192020
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data(1):
Revenue(1)
$6,046.6 $6,142.7 $6,633.2 $5,888.3 $5,748.1 
Cost of sales(1)
5,617.0 5,724.2 6,202.7 5,503.6 5,310.5 
Gross profit(1)
429.6 418.5 430.5 384.7 437.6 
Selling, general and administrative expenses (SG&A), including research and development(2)
236.0 229.4247.8 255.7 260.6 
Amortization of intangible assets9.4 8.915.4 29.6 25.6 
Other charges (recoveries)(3)
25.5 37.061.0 (49.9)23.5 
Earnings from operations(1)
158.7 143.2 106.3 149.3 127.9 
Refund interest income(4)
(14.3)— — — — 
Finance costs(5)
10.0 10.124.4 49.5 37.7 
Earnings before income taxes(1)
163.0 133.1 81.9 99.8 90.2 
Income tax expense (recovery)24.7 27.6 (17.0)29.5 29.6 
Net earnings(1)
$138.3 $105.5 $98.9 $70.3 $60.6 
Other Financial Data(1):
Basic earnings per share(1)
$0.98 $0.74 $0.71 $0.54 $0.47 
Diluted earnings per share(1)
$0.96 $0.73 $0.70 $0.53 $0.47 
Property, plant and equipment and computer software cash expenditures$64.1 $102.6 $82.2 $80.5 $52.8 
Shares used in computing per share amounts (in millions):
Basic141.8 143.1139.4 131.0 129.1 
Diluted143.9 145.2140.6 131.8 129.1 
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As of December 31
20162017201820192020
(in millions)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data(1)
Cash and cash equivalents$557.2 $515.2 $422.0 $479.5 $463.8 
Working capital(1)(6)
1,121.51,210.11,203.2 1,110.7 1,159.0 
Property, plant and equipment302.7323.9365.3 355.0 332.5 
Right-of-use (ROU) assets (1)
— — — 104.1 101.0 
Total assets(1)
2,841.92,964.23,737.7 3,560.7 3,664.1 
Borrowings under credit facility(7)
227.5187.5757.3 592.3 470.4 
Lease obligations(1)(7)
18.417.710.4 116.1 122.7 
Capital stock2,048.22,048.31,954.1 1,832.1 1,834.2 
Total equity(1)
1,257.81,370.21,332.3 1,356.2 1,409.0 
____________________________________

(1)Changes in accounting policies:
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted IFRS 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("IFRS 15"), which established a comprehensive framework for determining whether, how much, and when revenue should be recognized. In connection with the adoption of this standard, we elected to apply the full retrospective method, and in connection therewith: (i) recognized the transitional adjustments through equity at January 1, 2016, the start of the first relevant comparative reporting period impacted by the adoption of this standard; and (ii) restated financial information for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017. The new standard changed the timing of our revenue recognition for a significant portion of our business, resulting in the recognition of revenue for certain customer contracts earlier than under the previous revenue recognition rules (which was generally upon delivery of final products to our end customer). The new standard materially impacted our Consolidated Financial Statements, primarily in relation to inventory and accounts receivable balances. See note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18 of our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2018 for the transitional impacts of adopting IFRS 15.
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted IFRS 9, Financial Instruments ("IFRS 9"), which introduced a new model for the classification and measurement of financial assets, a single expected credit loss (ECL) model for the measurement of the impairment of financial assets, and a new model for hedge accounting that is aligned with a company's risk management activities. In connection with the adoption of IFRS 9, we also complied with the transitional rules of IAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements and IFRS 7, Financial Instruments Disclosures. In accordance with the transitional provisions of the rule, we applied the changes of IFRS 9 retrospectively, with the exception of the hedge accounting policies, which we applied prospectively as required by the standard. The adoption of this standard did not result in any adjustments to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted IFRS 16, Leases ("IFRS 16"), which brought most leases on-balance sheet for lessees under a single model. Commencing as of such date, we recognize ROU assets (representing our right to use such assets) and related lease obligations (representing related lease payment obligations) as of the applicable lease commencement date. In adopting this standard, we applied the modified retrospective approach, permitting us to recognize the cumulative effect of such adoption as an adjustment to our opening balance sheet as of January 1, 2019, without restatement of prior period comparative information. Upon initial adoption of IFRS 16, we recognized ROU assets of $111.5 million and related lease obligations of $112.0 million, and reduced our accrued liabilities by $0.5 million on our consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019. There was no net impact on our deficit as of January 1, 2019. Prior to the adoption of IFRS 16, we recognized operating lease expenses on a straight-line basis over the lease term generally in cost of sales or SG&A in our consolidated statement of operations. There were no changes to our finance leases required by the adoption of IFRS 16. See note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.

Effective January 1, 2020, we adopted the amendments to IFRS 9 (Financial Instruments), IAS 39 (Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement), and IFRS 7 (Financial Instruments: Disclosures), representing phase one of the Interbank Offered Rates reform on financial reporting. The amendments did not have a significant impact on our disclosures or the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020. See note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.

(2)SG&A expenses include research and development costs of $29.9 million in 2020, $28.4 million in 2019, $28.8 million in 2018, $26.2 million in 2017, and $24.9 million in 2016.
(3)Other charges in 2016 totaled $25.5 million, comprised of: (a) $31.9 million in restructuring charges, offset in part by (b) $6.4 million, consisting primarily of net legal recoveries.
Other charges in 2017 totaled $37.0 million, comprised of: (a) $28.9 million in restructuring charges, (b) a $1.9 million non-cash loss incurred on the purchase of pension annuities, (c) $1.6 million in transition costs relating to the relocation of our Toronto manufacturing operations, and (d) $4.6 million, primarily for acquisition-related costs and activities.
Other charges in 2018 totaled $61.0 million, comprised of: (a) $35.4 million in restructuring charges pertaining to our cost efficiency initiative, (b) $13.2 million in transition costs relating to the relocation of our Toronto manufacturing operations and corporate headquarters, (c) $1.2 million of
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accelerated amortization of unamortized deferred financing costs, and (d) $11.2 million, primarily for acquisition-related costs and activities. See note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.
Other charges (recoveries) in 2019 consisted of net recoveries of $49.9 million, comprised of: (a) $37.9 million in restructuring charges pertaining to our cost efficiency initiative, (b) $95.8 million in transition recoveries, consisting of the $102.0 million gain on the sale of our Toronto real property, offset in part by $3.8 million of related relocation costs, and $2.4 million of internal relocation costs pertaining to our Capital Equipment business, (c) $2.0 million in credit agreement-related waiver fees, (d) $4.1 million of post-employment benefit plan losses (non-cash), and (e) $3.9 million in acquisition-related costs and indemnification asset re-measurement costs, offset in part by $2.0 million in legal recoveries. See notes 7 and 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.
Other charges in 2020 totaled $23.5 million, and were comprised of: (a) $25.8 million in restructuring charges, primarily in connection with the Cisco Disengagement and to adjust our cost base in response to shifting demand, due in part to the impact of COVID-19, and (b) $0.2 million of acquisition- related costs, offset in part by $2.5 million in legal recoveries. See note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.

(4)Refund interest income represents the refund of interest on cash then-held on account with tax authorities in connection with the resolution of certain previously-disputed tax matters in 2016.
(5)Finance costs consist of: interest expense and fees related to our credit facility (including debt issuance and related amortization costs), our interest rate swap agreements, our accounts receivable sales program, two customer supplier financing programs, and interest expense on our lease obligations, net of interest income earned. See notes 12 and 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.
(6)Calculated as current assets less current liabilities.
(7)Borrowings under our credit facility exclude our lease obligations. Commencing in 2019, lease obligations include lease obligations under IFRS 16 (December 31, 2020 — $114.5 million; December 31, 2019 — $111.2 million) and lease obligations financed through third parties (December 31, 2020 — $8.2 million; December 31, 2019 — $4.9 million).
B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D.    Risk Factors
Any of the following risk factors, or any combination of them, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and/or operating results. Our shareholders and prospective investors should carefully consider each of the following risks and all of the other information set forth in this Annual Report.
We are dependent on a limited number of customers and end markets. A decline in revenue from, or the loss of, any significant customer, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
We depend upon a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenue. Our top 10 customers in 2020 represented 66% (2019 — 65%; 2018 — 70%) of our total revenue. We also remain dependent upon revenue from our Connectivity and Cloud Solutions (CCS) segment, which represented 64% of our consolidated revenue in 2020, and 61% and 67% of our consolidated revenue in 2019 and 2018, respectively. Notwithstanding our expansion efforts in our Advanced Technology Solutions (ATS) segment, and our newly-reshaped CCS segment portfolio, we remain dependent on our traditional CCS business for a large portion of our revenue, which has experienced slower growth rates, increased pricing pressures and a highly competitive marketplace, including from original design manufacturers (ODMs).
A decline in revenue from, or the loss of, any significant customer could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) — Recent Developments Segment Environment: CCS Segment" below for a discussion of our Cisco Disengagement, as well as other disengagements stemming from our CCS Review, and their anticipated impact on our business. We cannot assure: (i) the replacement of completed, delayed, cancelled or reduced orders with new business; (ii) that our current customers will continue to utilize our services consistent with historical volumes or at all; and/or (iii) that our customers will renew their long-term manufacturing or services contracts with us on acceptable terms or at all.
There can also be no assurance that our efforts to secure new customers and programs in our traditional or new markets, including through acquisitions, will succeed in reducing our customer concentration. Acquisitions are also subject to integration risk, and revenues and margins could be lower than we anticipate. Failure to secure business from existing or new customers in any of our end markets would adversely impact our operating results.
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Any of the foregoing may adversely affect our margins, cash flow, and our ability to grow our revenue, and may increase the variability of our operating results from period to period. See "Our revenue and operating results may vary significantly from period to period" below.
We are dependent on our customers' ability to compete and succeed in the marketplace using our products and services.
Our operating results are highly dependent upon our customers' ability to compete and succeed in the marketplace using our products and services. Factors that may adversely affect our customers include: rapid changes in technology; evolving industry standards; seasonal demand; their failure to successfully market, and/or a lack of widespread commercial acceptance of, their products; supply chain issues; dramatic shifts in demand which may cause them to lose market share or exit businesses (for example, the severe adverse impact of COVID-19 on the commercial aviation industry in 2020); recessionary periods in our customers' markets; short product lifecycles resulting from continuous improvements in products and services, commoditization of certain products, changes in preferences by end customers, and the emergence of new entrants or competitors with disruptive products, services, or new business models that de-emphasize traditional original equipment manufacturer (OEM) solutions and distribution channels. In addition, certain of our customers have experienced, and may in the future experience, severe revenue erosion, pricing, margin and cash flow pressures, and excess inventories that, in turn, have adversely affected (and in the future may adversely affect) our operating results. If technologies or standards supported by our customers' products and services or their business models become obsolete, fail to gain widespread acceptance or are canceled, our business would be adversely affected. For example, declines in end-market demand for customer-specific proprietary systems in favor of open systems with standardized technologies has had an adverse impact on certain of our customers, and consequently, our business. See "Our revenue and operating results may vary significantly from period to period" below.

We operate in an industry comprised of numerous competitors and aggressive pricing dynamics.

We operate in a highly competitive industry. Our competitors include Benchmark Electronics, Inc., Flex Ltd., Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., Jabil Inc., Plexus Corp., and Sanmina Corporation, as well as ODMs (including Quanta Computer Inc., Wistron Corp., Delta Networks, Inc., and Accton Technology Corp.), and smaller EMS companies that often have a regional, product, service or industry-specific focus. We face increased competition from ODMs that specialize in providing internally designed products and manufacturing services, as well as component and sub-system suppliers, distributors and/or systems integrators. In addition, our Hardware Platform Solutions (HPS) offering (previously referred to as Joint Design and Manufacturing, or JDM) may compete with our traditional customers' hardware offerings. Offering products or services to customers that compete with the offerings of other customers may negatively impact our relationship with, or result in a loss of business from, such other customers. We face indirect competition from current and prospective customers who decide to manufacture products internally, or insource previously outsourced business. In addition to the foregoing, we may face competition from distribution and logistics providers expanding their services across the supply chain.
    The competitive environment in our industry is intense and aggressive pricing is a common business dynamic. While we have increased our capacity in lower-cost regions, these regions have experienced, and may in the future experience, rising costs, reducing previous operational benefits. Some of our competitors have greater scale and offer a broader range of services. Additionally, our current or potential competitors may: increase or shift their presence in new lower-cost or lower-tariff regions to try to offset continuous competitive pressure and increasing labor costs or to secure new business; develop or acquire services comparable or superior to ours; consolidate to form larger competitors; or adapt more quickly than we do to new technologies, evolving industry trends and changing customer requirements. In addition, our competitors may be more effective than we are in investing in information technology solutions to differentiate their offerings to capture a larger share of the market. Some of our competitors have increased their vertical capabilities by manufacturing modules or components used in the products they assemble. Although we have also expanded our capabilities, including through acquisitions and "operate-in-place" arrangements, our competitors' expansion efforts may be more successful than ours. Competition may cause pricing pressures, reduced profits or a loss of market share (for example, from program losses, non-renewals or customer disengagements). We may not be able to compete successfully against our current and future competitors.
A change in the mix of customers and/or the types of products or services we provide could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
The mix of our customers and the type of products or services we provide may have an impact on our financial condition and operating results from period-to-period. For example, a higher concentration of lower-margin programs will have an adverse impact on our operating results in the relevant period. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments" for a discussion of the impact on our operating results of customer and service mix during 2020. In addition, certain customer agreements require us to provide specific price reductions over the contract term, which negatively impact our financial condition and operating results if they are not offset.
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The semiconductor industry is cyclical and volatile in nature.

The semiconductor industry is highly cyclical and periodically experiences significant economic downturns, often in connection with, or in anticipation of, maturing product cycles or a decline in general economic conditions. As has been previously disclosed, our operating results were adversely impacted by downturns in the semiconductor industry commencing in the second half of 2018. These downturns are characterized by diminished product demand, lower volumes and rapid erosion of average selling prices, resulting in revenue declines, production overcapacity, and excess inventory. The timing, length and volatility of these cycles are difficult to predict. The quick onset of demand changes, as well as the high level of fixed costs associated with this business, exacerbate the adverse impact of these downturns on our operating results. Actions taken to reduce our costs may be insufficient to align our structure with prevailing business conditions, and we may be unable to invest in research and development (R&D) and engineering at the levels we believe are necessary to maintain our competitive position. On the other hand, in the event of a significant upturn, we may not be able to expand our workforce and operations in a sufficiently timely manner, procure adequate resources and raw materials, or locate suitable third-party suppliers to respond effectively to changes in demand for our existing products or to the demand for new products requested by our customers. Any of the foregoing may adversely affect our margins, cash flow, and our ability to grow our revenue, and may increase the variability of our operating results from period to period.

We are dependent on third parties to supply certain materials, and our results can be negatively affected by the availability and cost of such materials.

    The purchase of materials and electronic components represents a significant portion of our costs. We rely on third parties to provide such items. Although our customers often dictate the materials to be used in their products, materials shortages or other issues affecting timely access to these materials (which often occur in our industry) may impact our ability to successfully complete a program. A delay or interruption in supply from a component supplier, especially for single-sourced components, could have a significant impact on our operations and on our customers if we are unable to deliver finished products in a timely manner. If the amount we are required to pay for equipment and supplies exceeds what we have estimated, especially in a fixed price contract, we may suffer losses on these contracts. If a supplier or manufacturer fails to provide supplies or equipment as required under a contract for any reason, we may be required to source these items from other third parties on a delayed basis or on less favorable terms, which could impact our profitability. Additionally, quality or reliability issues at any of our component providers, or financial difficulties that affect their production and ability to supply us with components, could halt or delay production of a customer's product, or result in claims against us for failure to meet required customer specifications, which could materially adversely impact our operating results. Shortages may also result in our carrying higher levels of inventory and extended lead-times, or result in increased component prices, which may require price increases in the products and services that we provide. Any increase in our costs that we are unable to recover would negatively impact our margins and operating results. Changes in forecasted volumes or in our customers' requirements can also negatively affect our ability to obtain components and adversely impact our operating results. We have experienced materials constraints from certain suppliers in both of our segments commencing in 2017, due in part to industry-wide shortages for certain electronic components. These constraints were also significantly exacerbated with respect to several of our businesses during 2020 as a result of COVID-19. These shortages caused delays in the production of customer products in both of our segments, and in combination with volatile market demand, negatively impacted our margins and resulted in higher-than-expected levels of inventory in 2020.
Inherent challenges in managing changes in customer demand may impact our planning, supply chain execution and manufacturing, and may adversely affect our operating performance and results.
Our customers typically do not commit to production schedules for more than 30 to 90 days in advance, and we often experience volatility in customer orders and inventory levels. Customers may terminate their agreements with us prior to scheduled expiration, fail to renew such agreements upon expiration, or significantly change, reduce or delay the volume of manufacturing or other services they order from us, any of which would adversely affect our operating results. Customers may also shift business to our competitors, in-source programs, or adjust the concentration of their supplier base. The global economic environment, adverse market conditions, political and geopolitical pressures, negative sentiment from our customers' customers or changes made by local governments (such as tax benefits or tariffs) may also impact our customers' business decisions. These and other factors could adversely affect the rate of outsourcing to EMS providers generally or to us in particular. A significant portion of our revenue can occur in the last month of the quarter, and purchase orders may be subject to change or cancellation, all of which affect our operating results when they occur. Additionally in 2020, we experienced significant demand reductions in both of our segments (particularly in our commercial aerospace and Industrial businesses), as a result of COVID-19. Because we cannot predict customer behavior, or if or when adverse market conditions will reverse, our forecasts of customer orders may be inaccurate, and may make it difficult to order appropriate levels of materials, schedule production, and maximize utilization of our manufacturing capacity and resources.
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Our customers may change their forecasts, production quantities or product type requirements, or may accelerate, delay or cancel production quantities. When customers change production volumes or request different products to be manufactured from those in their original forecast, the unavailability of components and materials for such changes could also adversely impact our revenue and working capital performance. See "We are dependent on third parties to supply certain materials, and our results can be negatively affected by the availability and cost of such materials" above.
    Further, to guarantee continuity of supply for many of our customers, we are required to manufacture and warehouse specified quantities of finished goods. The uncertainty of demand in our customers' end markets, intense competition in our customers' industries and general order volume volatility may result in customers delaying or canceling the delivery of products we manufacture for them or placing purchase orders for lower volumes of products than previously anticipated. This may result in higher than expected levels of inventory, which could in turn have a material adverse impact on our operating results and working capital performance. Although the levels of inventory we carry in any period reflect inventory required to support new program ramps, inventory levels are also impacted by demand volatility and significant product mix changes, including late changes from customers, as well as materials constraints from suppliers (which in 2020, was exacerbated by COVID-19). We may not be able to return or re-sell excess inventory resulting from these factors, or we may be required to hold such inventory for a period of time, any of which may result in our having to record additional reserves for the inventory if it becomes excess or obsolete. Increased levels of overall aged inventory in 2020 compared to 2019 resulted in approximately $13 million in higher inventory provisions in 2020 (due to reduced demand, to certain aged inventory in our CCS segment, and to specific disengaging customers in both segments). Order cancellations and delays could also lower our asset utilization, resulting in higher levels of unproductive assets, lower inventory turns, and lower margins.
We may encounter difficulties expanding or consolidating our operations or introducing new competencies or new offerings, which could adversely affect our operating results.
As we expand our business, open new sites, enter into new markets, products and technologies, invest in research, design and development, acquire new businesses or capabilities, transfer business within our network, consolidate certain operations, and/or introduce new business models or programs, we may encounter difficulties that result in higher than expected costs associated with such activities. Potential difficulties related to such activities include our ability: to manage growth effectively; to maintain existing business relationships during periods of transition; to anticipate disruptions in our operations that may impact our ability to deliver to customers on time, produce quality products and ensure overall customer satisfaction; and to respond rapidly to changes in customer demand or volumes. For example, we incurred operating losses in the second half of 2018 and throughout 2019 in our then recently-expanded Capital Equipment business related to significant decreases in customer demand, which also resulted in additional costs to consolidate sites and transfer programs in an effort to reduce the fixed costs associated with this business. In addition, our profitability was adversely impacted during 2020 as a result of significant reduced demand in our A&D business, due in part to COVID-19, requiring further cost reduction actions to adjust our cost base to the reduced levels of demand.
We may also encounter difficulties in ramping and executing new programs. Ramping new programs can range from several months to over a year before production starts, and often requires significant up-front investments and increased working capital. These programs may generate lower margins or losses during and/or following the ramp period, or may not achieve the expected financial performance, due to production ramp inefficiencies, lower than expected volume, or delays in ramping to volume. In addition, our customers may significantly change these programs, or even cancel them altogether, due to decreases in their end-market demand or in the actual or anticipated success of their products in the marketplace. For example, we incurred higher-than-expected costs in 2018 and 2019 with respect to ramping new programs, including in our Capital Equipment, A&D, HealthTech and Industrial businesses. We may continue to incur similar additional ramping costs as we further expand our ATS segment, expand our CCS segment network to increase supply chain resilience, and ramp new programs in the facility formerly used for programs with Cisco Systems, Inc. There can be no assurance that our increased investments will benefit us or result in business growth. As we pursue opportunities in new markets or technologies, we may encounter challenges due to our limited knowledge or experience in these areas. In addition, the success of new business models or programs depends on a number of factors including: understanding the new business or markets; timely and successful product development; market acceptance; the effective management of purchase commitments and inventory levels in line with anticipated demand; the development or acquisition of appropriate intellectual property and capital investments, to the extent required; the availability of materials in adequate quantities and at appropriate costs to meet anticipated demand; and the risk that new offerings may have quality or other defects in the early stages of introduction. Any of these factors could prevent us from realizing the anticipated benefits of growth in new markets or technologies, which could materially adversely affect our business and operating results.
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As part of our strategy to enhance our end-to-end service offerings, we intend to continue to expand our design and engineering capabilities. Providing these services may expose us to different or greater potential risks than those we face when providing our manufacturing services. Our design services require significant investments in R&D, technology licensing, testing and tooling equipment, patent applications and talent recruitment. Our margins may be adversely impacted if we incur higher than expected investment costs, or if our customers are not satisfied with our progress, or do not approve our completed designs. In addition, our design activities often require the purchase of inventory for initial production runs before we have a firm purchase commitment from a customer. Furthermore, we may face increased competition with respect to this offering, as well as the recruitment of our HPS talent, from ODMs and other companies providing similar services. As we anticipate continuing to grow our HPS business, costs required to support our design and engineering capabilities may adversely impact our profitability. In addition, some of the products we design and develop must satisfy safety and regulatory standards and/or receive government certifications. If we fail to obtain these approvals or certifications on a timely basis, we would be unable to sell these products, which would harm our revenues, profitability and reputation.
There can be no assurance that our expansion into new markets or new business will be successful, or that we will achieve the anticipated benefits.
In addition, there is no assurance that we will find suitable new acquisition targets, that we will be able to consummate any such transactions on terms and conditions acceptable to us, or that we will be able to fund any such acquisitions with existing cash resources or through financing provided by external lenders. We may be unable to obtain additional capital if and when required on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to consummate an acquisition we have deemed desirable, we may not be able to implement our intended business plan, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we may incur costs to support our pursuit of acquisitions and/or other strategic opportunities, which may adversely impact our operating results, and may not result in the consummation of any such transactions. See "We have incurred substantial third-party debt to fund acquisitions, which has increased our debt service requirements, may reduce our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or to respond to unexpected capital requirements, and may have other adverse impacts on our business" below.

We are subject to demand volatility in the commercial aerospace industry, and the sustained downturn in this industry as a result of COVID-19 as well as the Boeing 737 Max program halt, has adversely impacted (and is anticipated to continue to adversely impact) the revenues of our A&D business.

Our A&D business may be affected by certain characteristics and trends of the commercial aerospace industry, such as fluctuations in its business cycle, varying fuel and labor costs, intense price competition and regulatory scrutiny, certain trends, including a possible decrease in aviation activity and a decrease in outsourcing by aircraft manufacturers or the failure of projected market growth to materialize or continue. In the event that these characteristics and trends adversely affect customers in the commercial aerospace industry, they may reduce the overall demand for our commercial aerospace services. The Boeing 737 Max program halt led to demand reductions in our commercial aerospace business in 2020. In addition, the severe, prolonged and continuing adverse impact of COVID-19 on the commercial aerospace industry due to quarantines, travel restrictions, business curtailments, resurgences and mutations of the virus and safety concerns has had a material and adverse impact on our commercial aerospace revenues during 2020, which adverse impact is expected to continue throughout 2021.

Our profitability could suffer if we are not able to maintain adequate utilization of our workforce.

The cost of providing our services, including the extent to which we utilize our workforce, affects our profitability. Our workforce utilization rate is affected by a number of factors, including: our ability to transition employees from completed projects to new programs and to hire and assimilate new employees; our ability to forecast demand for our services and thereby maintain an appropriate headcount in each of our geographies and operating sites; our ability to manage attrition; our need to devote time and resources to training and development; and our ability to match the skill sets of our employees to the needs of the marketplace. If we over-utilize our workforce, our employees may become disengaged, which could impact employee attrition. If we under-utilize our workforce, our margins and profitability could suffer. Manufacturing shut-downs and restrictions due to COVID-19 resulted in the incurrence of certain idled labor costs, which adversely impacted our financial results in 2020.

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We are exposed to risks attributable to the display industry.

As a result of, among other things, the limited number of display manufacturers, the concentrated nature of end-use applications, production capacity relative to end-use demand, and panel manufacturer profitability, the global display industry has historically experienced considerable volatility. Industry growth is dependent on various factors, including: consumer demand for advanced television, smartphone and mobile device displays (which is in turn sensitive to factors including cost and improvements in new display technologies (such as organic light-emitting diode (OLED), low temperature polysilicon (LTPS) and metal oxide transistor backplanes, flexible displays, and new touch panel films)); fluctuations in customer spending; concentration of display manufacturer customers and their ability to successfully commercialize new products and technologies; and uncertainty with respect to future display technology end-use applications and growth drivers. The profitability of our display products and services will be impacted by the level of such industry growth; consumer demand and spending; the increasing cost of R&D and complexity of technology transitions and inflections; our ability to timely and effectively anticipate and adapt to technology changes; the flexibility of our manufacturing facilities; the ability to increase our market position in products and technologies with growing demand; the rate of transition to new technologies; and the resulting effect on capital intensity in the industry and on our product differentiation and return on investment. If we, or our customers, do not successfully develop and commercialize products to meet demand for new and emerging display technologies, or if industry demand for display manufacturing equipment and technologies slows, our display business would be adversely affected.
There may be problems with the products we design or manufacture that could result in liability/warranty claims against us, which may reduce demand for our services, damage our reputation, and/or cause us to incur significant costs.
In most of our sales contracts, we provide warranties against defects or deficiencies in our products, services, or designs. Our warranties generally last for a period of one to two years, however, warranties for certain customers, certain of our HPS designs, and our previous solar panel products generally have longer warranty periods. We generally design and manufacture products to our customers' specifications, many of which are highly complex, and include products for regulated industries, such as HeathTech and A&D. The customized design solutions that form a part of our HPS offering also subject us to the risk of liability claims if defects are discovered or alleged. Despite our quality control and assurance efforts, problems may occur or be alleged, in or resulting from the design and/or manufacturing of these products. Whether or not we are responsible, problems in the products we design and/or manufacture, or in products which include components we manufacture, whether real or alleged, whether caused by faulty customer specifications, the design or manufacturing processes or a component defect, may result in increased costs to us, as well as delayed shipments to our customers, and/or reduced or canceled customer orders. These potential claims may include damages for the recall of a product and/or injury to person or property, including consequential and/or punitive damages.
Even if customers or third parties, such as component suppliers, are responsible for defects, they may not, or may not be able to, assume responsibility for any such costs or required payments to us. While we seek to insure against many of these risks, insurance coverage may be inadequate, not cost effective or unavailable, either in general or for particular types of products or issues.
    As we expand our service offerings (including our HPS offerings) and pursue business in new end markets, our warranty obligations have increased and we may not be successful in pricing our products to appropriately cover our warranty costs. A successful claim for damages arising from defects or deficiencies for which we are not adequately insured, and for which indemnification from a third party is not timely (or otherwise) available, could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and/or our operating results and financial condition.
We may encounter integration and other significant challenges with respect to our acquisitions and strategic transactions which could adversely affect our operating results.
We have (and may continue to) expand our network, capabilities and presence in new regions and end markets through acquisitions and/or strategic transactions, including multi-year "operate-in-place" arrangements, where we manage certain production, assembly or other services for customers directly from their locations, acquire their inventory, equipment and/or other assets, hire their employees, and lease or acquire their manufacturing sites. Potential challenges related to these acquisitions and transactions include: integrating acquired operations, systems and businesses (which may include transferring production from acquired operations to our existing network, or downsizing or closing acquired locations, in each case to obtain anticipated operational synergies); meeting customers' expectations as to volume, product quality and timeliness; supporting legacy contractual obligations; retaining customer, supplier, employee or other business relationships of acquired operations; addressing unforeseen liabilities of acquired businesses; limited experience with new technologies and markets; failure to realize anticipated benefits, such as cost savings and revenue enhancements; failure to achieve anticipated business volumes or operating margins; valuation methodologies not accurately capturing the value of the acquired business; the effects of diverting
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management's attention from day-to-day operations to matters involving the integration of acquired businesses; incurring potentially substantial transaction costs associated with these transactions; increased burdens on our staff and on our administrative, internal control and operating systems, which may hinder our legal and regulatory compliance activities; overpayment for an acquisition; and potential impairments resulting from post-acquisition deterioration in, or reduced benefit from, an acquired business. While we often obtain indemnification rights from the sellers of acquired businesses, such rights may be difficult to enforce, the losses may exceed any dedicated escrow funds, and the indemnitors may not have the ability to financially support the indemnity. Any of these factors may prevent us from realizing the anticipated benefits of an acquisition, including additional revenue, operational synergies, and/or economies of scale. Any delay or failure to realize the anticipated benefits of acquisitions may adversely affect our business and operating results and may require us to write-down the carrying value of any related goodwill and intangible assets in periods subsequent to the acquisitions. For example, we incurred operating losses in the second half of 2018 and throughout 2019 in our then-recently-expanded Capital Equipment business related to significant unanticipated cyclical decreases in customer demand which commenced in the second half of 2018, which also resulted in additional costs to consolidate sites and transfer programs in an effort to reduce the fixed costs associated with this business. In addition, our profitability was adversely impacted during 2020 as a result of significant reduced demand in our A&D business, due in part to COVID-19, requiring further cost reduction actions to adjust our cost base in response thereto. Acquisitions may also involve businesses we are not familiar with, and expose us to additional business risks that are different than those we have traditionally experienced or anticipated at the time of acquisition.
Any failure to comply with customer-driven policies and standards, and third party certification requirements could adversely affect our business and reputation.
In addition to government regulations and industry standards, our customers may require us to comply with their own climate change, social responsibility, conflict minerals, quality or other business policies or standards, which may be more restrictive than current laws and regulations and our pre-existing policies, before they commence, or continue, doing business with us. Such policies or standards may be customer-driven, established by the industries in which we operate, or imposed by third party organizations. For example, we are a member of the Responsible Business Alliance (RBA). The RBA is a non-profit coalition of electronics companies that, among other things, establishes standards for its members in responsible and ethical practices in the areas of labor, environmental compliance, employee health and safety, ethics and social responsibility. Our compliance with these policies, standards and third-party certification requirements could be costly, and our failure to comply could adversely affect our operations, customer relationships, reputation and profitability.
Challenges associated with new customers or programs, or the provision of new services, could adversely affect our operations and financial results.
In determining whether to pursue a potential new customer, program or service, we evaluate whether it fits with our value proposition as well as its potential end-market success. Where we proceed, our goal is to ensure that our terms of engagement appropriately reflect anticipated costs, risks and rewards. The failure to make prudent engagement decisions or to establish appropriate contractual terms could adversely affect our profitability and margins.

There are also risks associated with the timing and ultimate realization of anticipated revenue from a new program or service. Certain new programs or services require us to devote significant capital and personnel to new technologies and competencies. We may not meet customer expectations, which could damage our relationships with such customers and impact our ability to timely deliver conforming products or services. The success of new programs may also depend heavily on factors including product reliability, market acceptance, regulatory approvals and/or economic conditions. Any failure to meet expectations on these factors could adversely affect our results of operations.
We have incurred significant restructuring charges in recent periods, and expect to incur further restructuring charges during 2021; we may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits from our restructuring activities, these activities may adversely affect our business, and additional restructuring actions may be required once currently-contemplated actions are complete.
We incurred restructuring charges of $25.8 million in 2020, $37.9 million in 2019, and $35.4 million in 2018. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Operating Results — Other charges (recoveries)." Implementation of our restructuring activities may be costly and disruptive to our business, and we may not achieve the cost savings and benefits anticipated from such activities. We may not be able to retain or expand existing business due to execution issues relating to anticipated headcount reductions, plant closures or product/service transfers, and we may incur higher operating expenses during the periods of transition. Additionally, restructuring actions may result in a loss of continuity and accumulated knowledge in our workforce and related operational inefficiencies, as well as negative publicity. Headcount
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reductions can also have a negative impact on morale and our ability to attract and hire new qualified personnel in the future. Our restructuring activities require a significant amount of management and other employees’ time and focus, which may divert attention from operating and growing our business. Any failure to achieve some or all of the expected benefits of our restructuring activities, including any delay in implementing planned related restructuring actions, may have a material adverse effect on our competitive position and operating results. In addition, we may implement additional future restructuring actions or divestitures as a result of changes in our business, the marketplace and/or our exit from less profitable, under-performing, non-core or non-strategic operations.
We have incurred substantial third-party debt to fund acquisitions, which has increased our debt service requirements, may reduce our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or to respond to unexpected capital requirements, and may have other adverse impacts on our business.
Our outstanding indebtedness, together with the mandatory prepayment provisions of our credit facility, require us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow to make interest and principal payments on such indebtedness, thereby limiting the availability of our cash flow for other purposes, and may reduce our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or to respond to unexpected capital requirements. Such indebtedness (which may increase if we are unable to sell desired amounts under our uncommitted accounts receivable sales program) may also: require us to pursue additional term financing for potential investments, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all; limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, business activities, and other general corporate requirements; limit our ability to refinance our indebtedness on terms acceptable to us or at all; limit our flexibility to plan for and adjust to changing business and market conditions; and increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions. In addition, such indebtedness could have a variety of other adverse effects, including: (i) default and foreclosure on our assets if we have insufficient funds to repay the debt obligations; (ii) acceleration of such indebtedness or cross-defaults if we breach financial or other covenants under applicable debt agreements and such breaches are not waived; (iii) increased vulnerability to adverse changes in competitive conditions or government regulation; and (iv) other disadvantages compared to our competitors who have less debt. Our credit facility also prohibits share repurchases for cancellation if our leverage ratio (as defined in such facility) exceeds a specified amount.

In addition, our credit ratings impact the cost and availability of future borrowings and, accordingly, our cost of capital. Our ratings reflect the opinions of the ratings agencies of our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet our debt obligations. There can be no assurance that we will achieve a particular rating or maintain a particular rating in the future, which could place us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors and prevent us from taking actions that could benefit us in the long term. Any negative change in our credit rating or outlook may make it more expensive for us to raise additional capital in the future on terms that are acceptable to us, if at all. We may not be able to obtain financing arrangements on acceptable terms or in amounts sufficient to meet our needs in the future, which could harm our ability to grow our business, internally or through acquisitions.

We have incurred impairment charges and operating losses in certain of our businesses, and may incur such charges and losses in future periods.

We review the carrying amount of goodwill, intangible assets, property, plant and equipment, and commencing in 2019, right-of-use (ROU) assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances (triggering events) indicate that the carrying amount of such assets, or the related cash generating unit (CGU) or CGUs, may not be recoverable. We did not identify any triggering events during 2018 - 2020 (or in connection with our annual impairment assessments of CGUs with goodwill for each of such years) indicating that the carrying amount of our assets or CGUs may not be recoverable. See notes 7, 8, and 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18. However, we have recorded charges during each of such years to write-down certain assets in connection with our restructuring actions (described in note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18), and incurred significant operating losses in our Capital Equipment business in the second half of 2018 and throughout 2019. Determining the recoverable amount of our assets and CGUs is subjective and requires management to exercise significant judgment in estimating future growth, profitability, discount and terminal growth rates, and in projecting future cash flows, among other factors, including the impact of market conditions on management's assumptions. Future events and changing market conditions may impact our assumptions as to prices, costs, or other factors that may result in changes to our estimates of future cash flows, which may in turn result in impairment charges, which could be substantial and adversely affect our financial results. Factors that might reduce the recoverable amount of these assets below their respective carrying values include declines in our stock price and market capitalization, reduced future cash flow estimates, and slower growth rates in any of our businesses. Sustained market price decreases, demand softness, and/or failure to realize future revenue at an appropriate profit margin in any CGU could negatively impact our operating results, including the incurrence of restructuring
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charges and/or impairment losses for such CGU or operating losses for the relevant business. Similar risks apply to assessing the recoverability of our deferred tax assets.
We continue to operate in an uncertain global economic and political environment.
Concerns over global economic conditions, financial markets, geopolitical issues, energy costs, inflation, and the availability and cost of credit, have contributed to increased global economic and political uncertainty. Brexit, the U.S. political environment, and tensions between the U.S. and other countries have contributed to such uncertainty. Specifically, trade actions between the U.S. and China have made our production from China less cost-competitive than other low-cost countries in recent periods. These geopolitical events, which are outside our control, have adversely impacted, and are expected to continue to adversely impact, our China operations. See "Our operations have been and could continue to be adversely affected by events outside our control" and "Policies or legislation instituted or proposed by the former or new U.S. administration could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition" below. Uncertain global economies have adversely impacted, and may continue to unpredictably impact, currency exchange rates. See "We are exposed to translation and transaction risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; hedging instruments may not be effective in mitigating such risks" below. Financial market instability may result in lower returns on our financial investments, and lower values on some of our assets. Alternately, inflation may lead to higher costs for labor and materials and/or increase our costs of borrowing and raising capital. Uncertainty surrounding the global economic environment and geopolitical outlook may impact current and future demand for some of the products we manufacture or services we provide, the financial condition of our customers and/or suppliers, as well as the number and pace of customer consolidations. If any of the foregoing impacts the financial condition of our customers, they may delay payments to us or request extended payment terms, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and working capital. If any of the foregoing impacts the financial condition of our suppliers, this may have an adverse effect on our operations, financial condition and/or customer relationships. We cannot predict the precise nature, extent, or duration of these economic or political conditions or if they will have any impact on our financial results. A deterioration in the economic environment may accelerate the effect of the various risk factors described in this Annual Report and could result in other unforeseen events that may adversely impact our business and financial condition.
Our operations have been and could continue to be adversely affected by events outside our control.
Our operations and those of our customers, component suppliers and/or our logistics partners may be disrupted by global or local events outside our control, including: natural disasters and related disruptions; political instability; geopolitical dynamics; terrorism; armed conflict; labor or social unrest; criminal activity; disease or illness that affects local, national or international economies (see below); unusually adverse weather conditions; and other risks present in the jurisdictions in which we, our customers, our suppliers and/or our logistics partners operate. These types of events could disrupt operations at one or more of our sites or those of our customers, component suppliers and/or our logistics partners. These events could also lead to higher costs or supply shortages, and may disrupt the delivery of components to us or our ability to provide finished products or services to our customers, any of which could adversely affect our operating results materially. We carry insurance to cover damage to our sites and interruptions to our operations, including those that may occur as a result of natural disasters, such as flooding, earthquakes or other events. Our insurance policies, however, are subject to deductibles, coverage limitations and exclusions, and may not provide adequate (or any) coverage should such events occur.
Our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected by the effects of a widespread outbreak of a contagious disease or other adverse public health developments. These effects could (and with respect to COVID-19, did) include disruptions or restrictions on our employees’ and other service providers’ ability to travel, as well as temporary closures of our facilities or the facilities of our customers, suppliers, or other vendors in our supply chain, including single source suppliers, and shipping delays and premiums. In addition, a significant outbreak of contagious diseases in the human population could (and with respect to COVID-19, did) result in a widespread health crisis that adversely affects the economies and financial markets of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that affects demand for our end customers’ products and in turn adversely impact our operating results. See "The effect of COVID-19 on our operations and the operations of our customers, suppliers and logistics providers has had, and may continue to have, a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations" below for a discussion of the actual and potential impact of COVID-19 on our business.

Increased international political volatility, including changes to previously accepted trading or other government policies or legislation in the U.S. and Europe, instability in parts of the Middle East, as well as the ongoing refugee crisis, anti-immigrant activities, social unrest and fears of terrorism, enhanced national security measures, armed conflicts, security issues at the U.S./Mexico border related to illegal immigration or criminal activities associated with illegal drug activities, labor or social unrest, strained international relations, including tensions between the U.S. and other countries, and any related decline in
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consumer confidence arising from these and other factors may materially hinder our ability to conduct business, or may reduce demand for our products or services. Any escalation in these events or similar future events may disrupt our operations or those of our customers and suppliers and could adversely affect the availability of materials needed to manufacture our products or the means to transport those materials to manufacturing sites and finished products to customers. Changes in policies by the U.S. or other governments could negatively affect our operating results due to changes in duties, tariffs or taxes, or limitations on currency or fund transfers, as well as government-imposed restrictions on producing certain products in, or shipping them to, specific countries. Also see "Policies or legislation instituted or proposed by the former or new U.S. administration could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition," and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — External Factors that May Impact our Business."

Given the lack of comparable precedent, it is unclear what financial, trade and legal implications the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union will have and how such withdrawal will affect us, our customers and their demand for our services. We cannot predict changes in currency exchange rates, the impact of exchange rate changes on our operating results, nor the degree to which we will be able to manage the impact of currency exchange rate changes, and any of these effects of Brexit, among others, could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We rely on a variety of common carriers for the transportation of materials and products and for their ability to route these materials and products through various international ports and other transportation hubs. A work stoppage, strike or shutdown of any important supplier's site or operations, or at any major port or airport, or the inability to access any such site for any reason, could result in manufacturing and shipping delays or expediting charges, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
The foregoing events have had and may in the future have an adverse impact on the U.S. and global economy in general, and on consumer confidence and spending, which may adversely affect our revenue and financial results. Such events could increase the volatility of the market price of our securities and may limit the capital resources available to us and our customers and suppliers.
The effect of COVID-19 on our operations and the operations of our customers, suppliers and logistics providers has had, and may continue to have, a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

COVID-19 had a material and adverse impact on our operations during 2020. In addition to demand reductions due to COVID-19 on our 2020 revenue, we experienced significant adverse revenue impacts across our businesses in 2020 resulting from COVID-19-related materials constraints. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments" for detail. We also estimate that COVID-19-related costs incurred during 2020 were approximately $37 million, comprised of both direct and indirect costs, including manufacturing inefficiencies related to lost revenue due to our inability to secure materials, idled labor costs resulting from shelter-in-place orders and manufacturing capacity restrictions, and incremental costs for labor, expedite fees and freight premiums, cleaning supplies, personal protective equipment, and IT-related services to support our work-from-home arrangements (collectively, COVID-19 Costs). Although we expect to continue to incur COVID-19 Costs in 2021, we cannot quantify anticipated amounts. Adverse COVID-19-related impacts were mitigated by an aggregate of $34 million in COVID-19-related government subsidies, grants or credits and $3 million of COVID-19-related customer recoveries we recognized in 2020. However, there can be no assurance that such relief will be available in 2021, and if so, that we will qualify for or receive any such assistance.

We have experienced shipping surcharges on ocean freight, premiums on air freight, and increased transit times in receiving certain raw materials as a result of shipping delays due to, among other things, additional safety requirements imposed by port authorities, closures of or congestion at ports, reduced availability of commercial transportation, border restrictions and capacity constraints for air freight as a result of COVID-19, which have had an adverse impact on our ability to obtain materials and deliver our products in a timely manner, and consequently, our results of operations. Shipping delays and increased shipping costs are anticipated to continue to disrupt our operations, and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, until ocean and air freight capacity is no longer constrained.

The pandemic has impacted our customers and may create unpredictable reductions or increases in demand for our services. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments — Segment Environment." In addition, the ability of our employees to work may be significantly impacted by individuals contracting or being exposed to COVID-19. While we are following the requirements of governmental authorities and taking preventative and protective measures to prioritize the safety of our employees (including a cessation (other than very limited essential inter-regional travel) of employee travel, a global work-from-home policy for applicable employees, and for all other employees, physical distancing, enhanced screening, mandatory mask and use of other personal protective equipment, and shift-splitting),
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these measures may not be successful, and we may be required to temporarily close facilities or take other measures. If additional factory closures or further reductions in capacity utilization occur, we would incur additional inefficiencies and direct costs, as well as a loss of revenue. If our suppliers experience additional closures or reductions in their capacity utilization levels, we may have difficulty sourcing materials necessary to fulfill production requirements. A material adverse effect on our employees, customers, suppliers and/or logistics providers could have a material adverse effect on us.

In addition to the potential items noted above, future impacts from the pandemic may also include: (i) a further decrease in short-term and/or a decrease in long-term demand and/or pricing for certain of our products; (ii) further reductions in production levels and R&D activities; (iii) further increased costs resulting from our efforts to mitigate the impact of COVID-19; (iv) deterioration of worldwide credit and financial markets that could limit our ability to obtain external financing to fund our operations and capital expenditures, result in losses on our holdings of cash and investments due to failures of financial institutions and other parties, and result in a higher rate of losses on our accounts receivable (A/R) due to credit defaults; (v) further disruptions to our supply chain, including as a result of shipping delays; (vi) write-downs and/or impairments of assets; (vii) diversion of management’s attention from our key strategic priorities, causing us to reduce, delay, alter or abandon initiatives that may otherwise increase our long-term value or otherwise disrupt our business operations; and/or (viii) adverse impacts on our information technology systems and our internal control systems as a result of continued remote work arrangements.

The ultimate size of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and its duration will depend on future developments which cannot currently be predicted, including infection resurgences and mutations, government responses, the speed at which our suppliers and logistics providers can return to and maintain full production, the status of labor shortages and the impact of supplier prioritization of backlog. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may experience significant adverse impacts to our businesses as a result of its global economic impact, including any related recession, as well as lingering impacts on our suppliers, third-party service providers and/or customers (including movement of production in-country to decrease global exposures).

Policies or legislation instituted or proposed by the former or new U.S. administration could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The former U.S. administration has created uncertainty with respect to, among other things, trade agreements, free trade generally, and significant increases on tariffs on goods imported into the U.S. from specified countries. Although the impact on our business of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement, is not expected to be significant, the former U.S. administration has increased tariffs on certain items imported into the U.S. from several countries (many of which are not addressed by the USMCA), each of which has imposed retaliatory tariffs on specified items. These actions, and/or other governmental actions related to tariffs or international trade agreements, could increase the cost to our U.S. customers who use our non-U.S. manufacturing sites and components, and vice versa, which may materially and adversely impact demand for our services, our results of operations or our financial condition. In connection with these events, we transferred numerous customer programs in 2019 and early 2020, primarily located in China, to countries unaffected by these tariffs (including Thailand). These transfers required us to make new investments and incur costs to realign our manufacturing footprint, including expansion in non-affected countries, and reductions of operations in impacted geographies. Although such costs have not been material to date, our production from China has become less cost-competitive than other low-cost countries in recent periods, and we anticipate further customer actions to exit China to avoid the impact of additional tariffs. Given the uncertainty regarding the scope and duration of these (or additional) trade actions, whether trade tensions will escalate further, and whether our customers will continue to bear the cost of the tariffs and/or avoid such costs by in-sourcing or shifting business to other providers, their impact on our operations and results for future periods cannot be currently quantified, but may be material. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — External Factors that May Impact our Business" for further detail.

In general, tax reform efforts, including with respect to tax base or rate, transfer pricing, inter-company dividends, cross border transactions, controlled corporations, and limitations on tax relief allowed on the interest on inter-company debt, require us to continually assess our organizational structure against tax policy trends, and could lead to an increased risk of international tax disputes and an increase in our effective tax rate, and could adversely affect our financial results.
The 2020 U.S. presidential election and the 2020 congressional and state elections in the U.S. have resulted in significant uncertainty with respect to, and have and could further result in changes in legislation, regulation, and government policy at the U.S. federal, state and local levels. It is unknown at this time to what extent new laws will be passed or new regulatory proposals will be adopted, if any (or whether current laws or regulations will be rolled back), or the effect that such events may have on the economy and/or our business. However, changes in U.S. social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or in
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laws and policies governing foreign trade, taxes, manufacturing, clean energy, the healthcare industry, development and investment in the jurisdictions in which we and/or our customers or suppliers operate, could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Changes to our operating model may adversely affect our business.
We continuously work to improve our productivity, quality, delivery performance and flexibility through various operational initiatives. Recent examples include our $81.3 million cost efficiency initiative (completed at the end of 2019), and our CCS Review disengagements, which resulted in an approximate aggregate revenue decline of $300 million in 2020 as compared to 2019 (with an estimated annualized aggregate CCS segment revenue decline of $1.25 billion). We may be unable to replace all or a portion of such revenue in a timely manner or on acceptable terms.
Implementation of these initiatives also presents a number of risks, including: (i) failure to achieve anticipated margin improvements from such actions; (ii) actual or perceived disruption of service or reduction in service levels to customers; (iii) potential adverse effects on our internal control environment with respect to general and administrative functions during transitions resulting from such initiatives; (iv) actual or perceived disruption to suppliers, distribution networks and other important operational relationships and the inability to resolve potential conflicts in a timely manner; (v) diversion of management attention from ongoing business activities and strategic objectives; and (vi) failure to retain key employees. Because of these and other factors, we cannot predict whether we will fully realize the purpose and anticipated benefits or cost savings of these initiatives and, if we do not, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected. Furthermore, adverse changes to our business may require additional restructuring or reorganization activities in the future. See "We have incurred significant restructuring charges in recent periods, and expect to incur further restructuring charges during 2021; we may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits from our restructuring activities, these activities may adversely affect our business, and additional restructuring actions may be required once currently-contemplated actions are complete" above.
Our results may be negatively affected by rising labor costs.
There is some uncertainty with respect to the pace of rising labor costs, and increasing competition for specific talent/resources in various regions in which we operate. Any increase in labor costs that we are unable to recover in our pricing to our customers would negatively impact our margins and operating results.
Volatility in commodity prices may negatively impact our operating results.
We rely on various energy sources in our production and transportation activities. Increases in prices for energy and other commodities could result in higher raw material and component costs and transportation costs. Any increase in our costs that we are unable to recover in our pricing to our customers would negatively impact our margins and operating results.
Quality and execution issues may reduce demand for our services, damage our reputation, and/or have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
In any given quarter, we can experience quality and process variances related to materials, testing, or other manufacturing or supply chain activities. Although we are successful in resolving the majority of such issues, the existence of these variances could cause us to incur significant costs in relation to corrective actions, have a material adverse impact on the demand for our services in future periods from any affected customers, damage our reputation, and/or have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
We may experience increased financial and reputational risk due to non-performance by counterparties.
A failure by counterparties, including customers, suppliers, financial institutions (including the issuers of our purchased annuities), or other third parties with whom we conduct business, to fulfill their contractual obligations, may result in financial loss to us and may have adverse effects on our business.
If a key supplier, or any company within such supplier's supply chain, experiences financial or other difficulties, such difficulties may affect their ability to supply us with materials, components or services, which could halt or delay the production of a customer's products, and/or have a material adverse impact on our operations, financial results, and customer relationships. In addition, our ability to collect outstanding A/R depends, in part, on the financial strength of our customers. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — External Factors that May Impact our Business" for further detail. Our A/R balance at December 31, 2020 was $1,093.4 million (December 31, 2019 — $1,052.7 million), with two customers individually representing 10% or more of total A/R (December 31, 2019 — two customers). If a customer
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bankruptcy occurs, our profitability may be adversely impacted if affected A/R are in excess of our allowance for doubtful accounts. Additionally, our future revenues could be adversely impacted by a customer bankruptcy. Inability to collect A/R and/or the loss of one or more major customers could adversely impact our operating results, financial position and cash flows. We cannot reasonably determine the extent to which a customer or supplier may have financial difficulties, or whether we will be required to adjust customer pricing, payment terms and/or the amounts we pay to suppliers for materials and components.
To mitigate the actuarial and investment risks of our defined benefit pension plans, we purchase annuities (using existing plan assets) from time to time from third party insurance companies for certain, or all, of our obligations under specified pension plans. See note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18. Failure by the insurance companies to fulfill their contractual obligations would result in a significant financial loss to us, as we retain ultimate responsibility for the payment of benefits to plan participants unless and until such pension plans are wound-up.
We may use cash on hand, issue debt or equity securities, and/or incur additional third-party debt (or any combination thereof) to complete future acquisitions or otherwise fund our operations, which may adversely affect our liquidity, credit ratings, financial condition and/or results of operations.
Any significant use of cash (for future acquisitions or otherwise) would adversely impact our cash position and liquidity. In addition, we may choose to issue debt securities or otherwise incur additional debt to fund future acquisitions or otherwise fund our operations. Any additional incurrence of debt (either through the issuance of debt securities or through a new or refinanced credit facility) would increase our debt leverage and debt service requirements (necessitating the use of additional cash flow for this purpose), may reduce our debt agency ratings, may further adversely impact our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or respond to unexpected capital requirements, may impose additional restrictions on our operations, and may have a variety of additional adverse effects, including, but not limited to, those described in "We have incurred substantial third-party debt to fund acquisitions, which has increased our debt service requirements, may reduce our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or to respond to unexpected capital requirements, and may have other adverse impacts on our business" above. To the extent we sell equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities (the pricing of which would be subject to market conditions at the time of issuance) could result in material dilution to our stockholders. Sales of our equity securities or convertible debt, or the perception that these sales could occur, could also cause the market price for our subordinate voting shares (SVS) to fall, and new securities could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to the holders of our SVS.
We are exposed to translation and transaction risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; hedging instruments may not be effective in mitigating such risks.
Global currency markets can be volatile. Although we conduct the majority of our business in U.S. dollars (our functional currency), our global operations subject us to translation and transaction risks associated with fluctuations in currency exchange rates that could have a material adverse impact on our operating results and/or financial condition. A significant portion of our operational costs (including payroll, pensions, site costs, costs of locally sourced supplies and inventory, and income taxes) are denominated in various currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Fluctuations in currency exchange rates may significantly increase the amount of translated U.S. dollars required for costs incurred in other currencies or significantly decrease the U.S. dollars received from non-U.S. dollar revenues.
Although our functional currency is the U.S. dollar, currency risk on our income tax expense arises as we are generally required to file our tax returns in the local currency for each particular country in which we have operations. A weakening of the local currency against the U.S. dollar could have a negative impact on our income taxes payable (related to increased local-currency taxable profits) and on our deferred tax costs (primarily related to the revaluation of non-monetary foreign assets from historical average exchange rates to the period-end exchange rates). See note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18. While our hedging program is designed to mitigate currency risk vis-à-vis the U.S. dollar, we remain subject to taxable foreign exchange impacts in our translated local currency financial results relevant for tax reporting purposes.
As part of our risk management program, we enter into foreign currency forward and swap contracts to lock in the exchange rates for future foreign currency transactions, which is intended to reduce the foreign currency risk related to our operating costs and future cash flows denominated in local currencies. While these contracts are intended to reduce the effects of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, our hedging strategy does not mitigate the longer-term impacts of changes to foreign exchange rates. In addition, these instruments are subject to transaction costs, credit requirements and counterparty risk. If our hedging program is not successful, or if we change our hedging activities in the future, we may experience significant unexpected expenses from fluctuations in exchange rates.
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Our financial results have been adversely impacted by negative foreign currency translation effects, and such adverse effects, some of which may be substantial, are likely to recur in the future.
Our ability to successfully manage unexpected changes or risks inherent in our global operations and supply chain may adversely impact our financial performance.
We have sites in the following countries: Canada, the U.S., China, Ireland, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mexico, Romania, Singapore, South Korea, Spain and Thailand. During 2020, approximately 80% of our revenue was produced at locations outside of North America. We also purchase the majority of our components and materials from international suppliers.
Global operations are subject to inherent risks which may adversely affect us, including:
changes in local tax rates and tax incentives and the adverse tax consequences of repatriating earnings;
labor unrest and differences in regulations and statutes governing employee relations, including increased scrutiny of labor practices within our industry;
cultural differences and/or differences in local business customs;
negative impacts, or ineffectiveness, of our restructuring activities;
changes in regulatory requirements;
inflationary trends and rising costs;
changes in international political relations;
difficulty in staffing (including skilled labor availability and cost) and managing foreign operations;
challenges in building and maintaining infrastructure to support operations;
compliance with a variety of foreign laws, including import and export tariffs and regulations;
adverse changes in trade policies and/or agreements between countries in which we maintain operations;
changes in logistics costs;
changes in the availability, lead time, and cost of components and materials;
weaker laws protecting intellectual property rights and/or greater difficulty enforcing such rights;
global economic, political and/or social instability, including military actions, protectionism and reactive countermeasures, economic or other sanctions or trade barriers;
potential restrictions on the transfer of funds and/or other restrictive actions by foreign governments;
the effects of terrorist activity, armed conflict, natural disasters and epidemics (including COVID-19); and
global currency fluctuations.
Any of these risks could disrupt the supply of our components or materials, slow or stop our production, and/or increase our costs. Compliance with trade and foreign tax laws may increase our costs and actual or alleged violations of such laws could result in enforcement actions or financial penalties that could result in substantial costs. In addition, the introduction or expansion of certain social programs in foreign jurisdictions may increase our costs, and certain supplier's costs, of doing business.
In particular, a significant portion of our manufacturing, design, support and storage operations are conducted in our facilities in China, and revenues associated with our China operations are important to our success. Therefore, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by economic, political, legal, regulatory, competitive and other factors in China. The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement and control over economic growth. In addition, our operations in China are governed by Chinese laws, rules and regulations, some of which are relatively new. The Chinese legal system continues to rapidly evolve, which may result in uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws, rules and regulations that could have a material adverse effect on our business. China experiences high turnover of direct labor in the
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manufacturing sector due to the intensely competitive and fluid market for labor, and the retention of adequate labor is a challenge. If our labor turnover rates are higher than we expect, or we otherwise fail to adequately manage our labor needs, then our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. We are also subject to risks associated with our subsidiaries organized in China. For example, regulatory and registration requirements and government approvals affect the financing that we can provide to our subsidiaries. If we fail to receive required registrations and approvals to fund our subsidiaries organized in China, or if our ability to remit currency out of China is limited, then our business and liquidity could be adversely affected.

In addition, international trade disputes with China have resulted in increased tariffs and other measures that have, and may continue to, adversely affect the Company’s business. Although we have transferred numerous customer programs out of China in 2019 and early 2020 in response to recent tariffs and trade tensions between the U.S. and China, our production from China has become less cost-competitive than other low-cost countries in recent periods, and we anticipate further customer actions to exit China to avoid the impact of additional tariffs. More generally, changes to, among other things, laws or policies in the U.S. regarding foreign trade, import/export duties, tariffs or taxes, manufacturing and/or investments, could materially adversely affect our U.S. and foreign operations. See "Policies or legislation instituted or proposed by the former or new U.S. administration could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition" above, and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — External Factors that May Impact our Business."

Our business is dependent on us winning competitive bid selection processes.

    These selection processes are typically lengthy and can require us to dedicate significant development expenditures and engineering resources in pursuit of a single customer opportunity. Failure to obtain a particular design win may prevent us from obtaining design wins in subsequent generations of a particular product. This can result in lost revenue and could weaken our position in future competitive bid selection processes.

Customer relationships with emerging companies may present more risks than with established companies.

    Customer relationships with emerging companies present special risks because we do not have an extensive product or customer relationship history. There is less demonstration of market acceptance of their products making it harder for us to anticipate requirements than with established customers. Our credit risk on these customers, especially in A/R and inventories, and the risk that these customers will be unable to fulfill indemnification obligations to us are potentially increased.
If we are unable to recruit or retain highly skilled talent, our business could be adversely affected.
The recruitment of personnel in the EMS and ODM industry is highly competitive. We believe that our future success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled executive, technical and management talent in the various geographies in which we operate. Competitive dynamics, as well as the time required to replace or redistribute responsibilities related to the loss of the services of certain executive, management and technical employees, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our operations, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to retain their services. Regional competitive dynamics may also impact our ability to retain and acquire talent. Organizational changes may impact our relationships with customers, vendors, and employees, potentially resulting in loss of business, loss of vendor relationships, and the loss of key employees or declines in employee productivity. Uncertainties associated with any senior management transitions could lead to concerns from current and potential third parties with whom we do business, any of which could hurt our business prospects. Turnover in key leadership positions within the Company, or any failure to successfully integrate key new hires or promoted employees, may adversely impact our ability to manage the Company efficiently and effectively, could be disruptive and distracting to management and may lead to additional departures of existing personnel, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial results and internal controls over financial reporting.
We may not keep pace with rapidly evolving technology.
Many of the markets for our manufacturing and engineering services are characterized by rapidly changing technology and evolving process development.
Although we believe that our operations use the assembly and testing technologies, equipment and processes that are currently required by our customers, we cannot be certain that we will maintain or develop the capabilities required by our customers in the future. The emergence of new technologies, industry standards or customer requirements may render our equipment, designs, inventory or processes obsolete or noncompetitive. In addition, we may have to invest in new processes, capabilities or equipment to support new technologies used in our customers' current or future products, and to support their
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supply chain processes. Additionally, as we expand our service offerings or pursue business in new markets where our experience may be limited, we may be less effective in adapting to technological change. Our manufacturing, engineering, supply chain processes, and test development efforts and design capabilities may not be successful due to rapid technological shifts in any of these areas. The acquisition and implementation of new technologies and equipment and the offering of new or additional services to our customers may require significant expense or capital investment, which could reduce our operating margins and our operating results. Our failure to anticipate and adapt to our customers' changing technological needs and requirements or to hire and retain a sufficient number of engineers and maintain our engineering, technological and manufacturing expertise could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Various industry-specific standards, qualifications and certifications are required to produce certain types of products for our customers. Failure to obtain or maintain those certifications may adversely affect our ability to maintain existing levels of business or win new business.
We may not adequately protect our intellectual property or the intellectual property of others.
We believe that certain of our proprietary intellectual property rights and information provide us with a competitive advantage. Accordingly, we take steps to protect this proprietary information, including obtaining patents to safeguard our HPS intellectual property, entering into non-disclosure agreements with customers, suppliers, employees and other parties, and by implementing security measures. However, these measures may not be sufficient to prevent or detect the misappropriation or unauthorized use or disclosure of our intellectual property or information. We also conduct business in some countries where the extent of effective legal protection for intellectual property rights is uncertain. Even if we have intellectual property rights, there is no guarantee that such rights will provide adequate protection of items we consider to be proprietary. We may also be required to compromise protections or yield rights to technology, data or intellectual property in order to conduct business in or access markets in certain jurisdictions, either through formal written agreements or due to legal or administrative requirements in the host nation. If we are not able to protect our intellectual property rights, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
There is also a risk that claims of intellectual property infringement could be brought against us, our customers and/or our suppliers. If such claims are successful, we may be required to spend significant time and financial resources to develop non-infringing processes, technology or information or to obtain appropriate licenses from the owner. We may not be successful in such development, or any such licenses may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, any litigation could be lengthy and costly and could adversely affect us even if we are successful. As we expand our service offerings, we may be less effective in anticipating or mitigating the intellectual property risks related to new manufacturing, design and other services, which could be significant.
We are subject to the risk of increasing income and other taxes, tax audits, and the challenges of successfully defending our tax positions, and obtaining, renewing or meeting the conditions of tax incentives and credits, any of which may adversely affect our financial performance.
We conduct business operations in a number of countries where tax incentives have been extended to encourage foreign investment or where income tax rates are low. Our income tax expense could increase significantly if certain tax incentives from which we benefit are retracted. A retraction could occur if we fail to satisfy the conditions on which these tax incentives are based, or if they are not renewed or replaced upon expiration. Our income tax expense could also increase if tax rates applicable to us in such jurisdictions are otherwise increased, or due to changes in legislation or administrative practices. Changes in our outlook in any particular country could impact our ability to meet the required conditions. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Operating Results — Income taxes" and note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18 for a discussion of recently expired tax incentives, the status of existing tax incentives, and a challenge to our Brazilian sales tax levy rates.
We develop our tax filing positions based upon the anticipated nature and structure of our business and the tax laws, administrative practices and judicial decisions currently in effect in the jurisdictions in which we have assets or conduct business, all of which are subject to change or differing interpretations, possibly with retroactive effect.
Certain of our subsidiaries provide financing or products and services to, and may from time-to-time undertake certain significant transactions with, other subsidiaries in different jurisdictions. Moreover, several jurisdictions in which we operate have tax laws with detailed transfer pricing rules which require that all transactions with non-resident related parties be priced using arm's-length pricing principles, and that contemporaneous documentation must exist to support such pricing.
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We are subject to tax audits in various jurisdictions, which could result in additional tax expense in future periods related to prior results. Any such increase in our income tax expense and related interest and/or penalties could have a significant adverse impact on our future earnings and future cash flows. The successful pursuit of assertions made by any tax authority could result in our owing significant amounts of tax, interest, and possibly penalties. We believe we adequately accrue for any probable potential adverse tax ruling. However, there can be no assurance as to the final resolution of any claims and any resulting proceedings. If any claims and any ensuing proceedings are determined adversely to us, the amounts we may be required to pay could be material, and could be in excess of amounts accrued.
As at December 31, 2020, a significant portion of our cash and cash equivalents was held by foreign subsidiaries outside of Canada, a large part of which may be subject to withholding taxes upon repatriation under current tax laws. We have repatriated in 2020, and currently expect to repatriate in the foreseeable future, an aggregate of approximately $300 million from various foreign subsidiaries (December 31, 2019 — expected to repatriate $117 million), which has increased our related deferred tax liabilities.
Our operations and our customer relationships may be adversely affected by disruptions to our information technology (IT) systems, including disruptions from cybersecurity breaches of our IT infrastructure.

We rely on IT networks and systems, including those of third-party service providers, to process, transmit and store electronic information. In particular, we depend on our IT infrastructure for a variety of functions, including worldwide financial reporting, inventory and other data management, procurement, invoicing and email communications. Any of these systems may be susceptible to outages due to fire, floods, power loss, telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks, sabotage and similar events. Global cybersecurity threats and incidents can range from uncoordinated individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to our IT systems to sophisticated and targeted measures known as 'advanced persistent threats'. The ever-increasing use and evolution of technology, including cloud-based computing and the rise of the 'Internet of Things,' creates opportunities for the unintentional dissemination or intentional destruction of confidential information stored in our systems or in non-encrypted portable media or storage devices. We could also experience a business interruption, information theft of confidential data, or reputational damage from industrial espionage attacks, malware or other cyber-attacks, which may compromise our system infrastructure or lead to data leakage, either internally or at our third-party providers. Despite the implementation of advanced threat protection, information and network security measures and disaster recovery plans, our systems and those of third parties on which we rely may also be vulnerable to computer viruses, break-ins and similar disruptions. This risk is enhanced as a result of the number of employees currently working remotely due to COVID-19, through the increased use of home networks that may lack encryption or secure password protection, virtual meeting/conference security concerns and increase of phishing/cyber-attacks around COVID-19 digital resources. If we or our vendors are unable (or are perceived as unable) to prevent or promptly identify and remedy such outages and breaches, our operations may be disrupted, our business reputation could be adversely affected, and there could be a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations. We expect that risks and exposures related to cybersecurity attacks will remain high for the foreseeable future due to the rapidly evolving nature and sophistication of these threats.
We may not be able to prevent or detect all errors or fraud.
Due to the inherent limitations of internal control systems, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and may not be detected in a timely manner or at all. Accordingly, we cannot provide absolute assurance that all control issues, errors or instances of fraud, if any, impacting us have been or will be prevented or detected. In addition, over time, certain aspects of a control system may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate, which we may not be able to address quickly enough to prevent all instances of error or fraud. In connection with our on-going assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we may discover “material weaknesses” in our internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The existence of any material weakness may require management to devote significant time and incur significant expense to remediate any such material weaknesses. The existence of any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting may result in errors in our financial statements that could require us to make corrective adjustments, restate our financial statements, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations, and cause shareholders to lose confidence in our reported financial information, all of which could materially and adversely affect the market price of our securities. If we are unable to successfully identify and remediate any material weaknesses that may arise in a timely manner, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected, and we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports and applicable stock exchange listing requirements.
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Our revenue and operating results may vary significantly from period to period.
Our quarterly and annual results may vary significantly depending on various factors, certain of which are described below, and many of which are beyond our control.
the volume and timing of customer demand relative to our capacity;
the typical short life cycle, and success in the marketplace, of our customers' products;
the cyclical nature of customer demand in several of our businesses;
customers' financial condition;
changes to our mix of customers, programs and/or end market demand;
how well we execute on our operational strategies, and the impact of changes to our business model;
varying revenues and gross margins among geographies and programs for the products or services we provide;
pricing pressures, the competitive environment and contract terms and conditions;
upfront investments and challenges associated with the ramping of programs for new or existing customers;
provisions or charges resulting from unexpected changes in market conditions impacting our industry or the end markets we serve;
customer disengagements or terminations or non-renewal of customer programs, arrangements or agreements;
the timing of expenditures in anticipation of future orders;
our effectiveness in planning production and managing inventory, fixed assets and manufacturing processes;
operational inefficiencies and disruptions in production at individual sites;
unanticipated disruptions to our cash flows;
changes in cost and availability of commodities, materials, components, services and labor;
current or future litigation;
seasonality in quarterly revenue patterns across some of our businesses;
governmental actions or changes in legislation;
currency fluctuations; and
changes in U.S. and global economic and political conditions and world events, including the impact of External Events.
See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Overview" for a discussion of additional factors, including rapid shifts in technology, model obsolescence, commoditization of certain products, and the emergence of new business models, that contribute to the complexity of managing our operations and fluctuations in our financial results.
Compliance with governmental laws and obligations could be costly and may negatively impact our financial performance.
We are subject to various federal/national, state/provincial, local, foreign and supra-national environmental laws and regulations. Our environmental management systems and practices have been designed to provide for compliance with these laws and regulations. Maintaining compliance with and responding to increasingly stringent environmental regulations requires a significant investment of time and resources and may restrict our ability to modify or expand our manufacturing sites or to continue production. Any failure to comply with these laws and regulations may potentially result in significant fines and penalties, our operations may be suspended or subjected to increased oversight, and our cost of related investigations could be material in any period.
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More complex and stringent environmental legislation continues to be imposed globally, including laws that place increased responsibility and requirements on the "producers" of electronic equipment and, in turn, their providers and suppliers. Such laws may relate to product inputs (such as hazardous substances and energy consumption), product use (such as energy efficiency and waste management/recycling), and/or operational outputs/by-products from our manufacturing processes that can result in environmental contamination (such as waste water, air emissions and hazardous waste). Noncompliance with these requirements could result in substantial costs, including fines and penalties, and we may incur liability to our customers and consumers.
Even where compliance responsibility rests primarily with our customers, they may request our assistance in meeting their obligations. Our customers remain focused on issues such as waste management (including recycling), climate change (including the reduction of carbon emissions) and product stewardship, and expect their EMS providers to be environmental leaders. We strive to meet such customer expectations, although these demands may extend beyond our regulatory obligations and require significant investments of time and resources to attract and retain customers.
We generally conduct environmental assessments, or review assessment reports undertaken by others, for our manufacturing sites at the time of acquisition or leasing. However, such assessments may not reveal all environmental liabilities, and assessments have not been obtained for all sites. In addition, some of our operations involve the use of hazardous substances that could cause environmental impacts. While we have operational systems to provide environmental management, we cannot rule out all risk of non-compliance and could incur substantial costs to comply. Although if deemed necessary, we may investigate, remediate or monitor emissions and site conditions at some of our owned or leased sites (such as air, soil and/or groundwater conditions), we may not be aware of, or adequately address, all such emissions and conditions, and we may incur significant costs should such work be required. In many jurisdictions in which we operate, environmental laws impose liability for the costs of removal, remediation or risk assessment of hazardous or toxic substances on an owner, occupier or operator of real estate, even if such person or company was unaware of or not responsible for the discharge or migration of such substances. In some instances where soil or groundwater contamination existed prior to our ownership or occupation, landlords or former owners may have retained some contractual responsibility or regulatory liability, but this may not provide sufficient protection to reduce or eliminate our liability. Third-party claims for damages or personal injury are also possible and could result in significant costs to us. If more stringent compliance or cleanup standards under environmental laws or regulations are imposed, or the results of future testing and analyses at our current or former operating sites indicate that we are responsible for the release of hazardous substances into the air, ground and/or water, we may be subject to additional liability. Additional environmental matters may arise in the future at sites where no problem is currently known or at sites that we may acquire in the future.
Our HealthTech business is subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Health Canada, the European Medicines Agency, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, and similar regulatory bodies in other jurisdictions, relating to the medical devices and hardware we manufacture for our customers. Our sites that deliver products to the healthcare industry are certified or registered in quality management standards applicable to the healthcare industry. We are required to comply with various statutes and regulations related to the design, development, testing, manufacturing and labeling of our medical devices in addition to reporting of certain information with respect to the safety of such products. Any failure to comply with these regulations could result in fines, injunctions, product recalls, import detentions, additional regulatory controls, suspension of production, and/or the shutting down of one or more of our sites, among other adverse outcomes. Failure to comply with these regulations may also materially affect our reputation and/or relationships with customers and regulators.
We provide design, engineering and manufacturing related services to our customers in the A&D business. As part of these services, we are subject to substantial regulation from government agencies including the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Our A&D sites are certified in quality management standards applicable to the A&D industry. Failure to comply with these regulations or the loss of any of our quality management certifications may result in fines, penalties and injunctions, and could prevent us from executing on current or winning future contracts, any of which may materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results. In addition to quality management standards, there are several other U.S. regulations with which we are required to comply, including the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR), which provides uniform policies and procedures for acquisition; the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, a DOD agency supplement to the FAR that provides DOD-specific acquisition regulations that DOD government acquisition officials, and those contractors doing business with DOD, must comply with in the procurement process for goods and services; and the Truth in Negotiations Act, which requires full and fair disclosure by contractors in the conduct of negotiations with the government and its prime contractors. These rules are complex, our performance under them is subject to audit by the U.S. Defense Contract Audit Agency, the U.S. Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs and other
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government regulators, and in most cases must be complied with by our suppliers. If an audit or investigation reveals a failure to comply with regulations, we could become subject to civil or criminal penalties and administrative sanctions by either the government or the prime customer, including government pre-approval of our government contracting activities, termination of the contract, payment of fines and suspension or debarment from doing further business with the U.S. government. Any of these actions could increase our expenses, reduce our revenue and damage our reputation as a reliable U.S. government supplier. We are also subject to the export control laws and regulations of the countries in which we operate, including, but not limited to, the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).
Our international operations require us to comply with various anti-bribery laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (Canada) (CFPOA). In some countries in which we operate, it may be customary for businesses to engage in business practices that are prohibited by the FCPA, CFPOA or other laws and regulations. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with the FCPA, CFPOA and similar laws in other jurisdictions, there can be no assurance that all of our employees and agents, as well as those companies to which we outsource certain business operations, will not be in violation of these laws and our policies or procedures. In addition to the difficulty of monitoring compliance, any suspected or alleged activity would require a costly investigation by us and may result in the diversion of management's time, resources and attention. Failure to comply with these laws may subject us to, among other things, adverse publicity, penalties and legal expenses that may harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
As a public company, we are subject to stringent laws, regulations and other requirements, including the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the U.S. Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank), affecting, among other areas, our accounting, internal controls, corporate governance practices, securities disclosures and reporting. For example, due to our complex supply chain, compliance with Dodd-Frank diligence, disclosure and reporting requirements with respect to defined "conflict minerals" is time-consuming and costly. If we are unable to ascertain the origins of all such minerals used in the manufacturing of our products through the due diligence procedures we implement, we may be unable to satisfy our customers' certification requirements. This may harm our reputation, damage our customer relationships and result in a loss of revenue. If the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules or other new social or environmental standards limit our pool of suppliers in order to produce "conflict free" or "socially responsible" products, or otherwise adversely affect the sourcing, supply and pricing of materials used in our products, we could also experience cost increases and a material adverse impact on our operating results.
    In addition, whenever we pursue business in new end markets, or our customers pursue new technologies or businesses, we are required to navigate the potentially heavy regulatory and legislative burdens of such end markets or technologies, as well as applicable quality standards with respect thereto.
The regulatory climate can itself affect the demand for our services. For example, government reimbursement rates and other regulations, as well as the financial health of healthcare providers, changes in how healthcare in the U.S. is structured, including as a result of the U.S. Affordable Care Act (or any successor legislation), and how medical devices are taxed, could affect the willingness and ability of end customers to purchase the products of our customers in this market as well as impact our margins.
Our customers are also required to comply with various government regulations, legal requirements and industry standards, including many of the industry-specific regulations discussed above. Our customers' failure to comply could affect their businesses, which in turn would affect our sales to them. In addition, if our customers are required by regulation or other requirements to make changes in their product lines, these changes could significantly disrupt particular programs for these customers and create inefficiencies in our business.
In addition, a failure by a supplier or manufacturer to comply with applicable laws, regulations or customer requirements could negatively impact our business, and for governmental customers, could result in fines, penalties, suspension or even debarment being imposed on us, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Compliance or the failure to comply with employment laws and regulations may negatively impact our financial performance.
We are subject to a variety of domestic and foreign employment laws, including those related to: workplace safety, discrimination, harassment, whistle-blowing, wages and overtime, personal taxation, classification of employees, work authorizations and severance. Compliance with such laws may increase our costs. In addition, such laws are subject to change, and enforcement activity relating to these laws, particularly outside of the U.S., may increase as a result of greater media
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attention due to alleged violations by other companies, changes in law, political and other factors. There can be no assurance that, in the future, we will not be found to have violated elements of such laws. Any such violations could lead to the assessment of fines or damages against us by regulatory authorities or claims by employees, any of which could adversely affect our operating results and/or our reputation.
An inability to successfully manage the procurement, development, implementation or execution of IT systems, or to adequately maintain these systems and their security, as well as to protect data and other confidential information, may adversely affect our business and reputation.

    As a complex, global company, we are heavily dependent on our IT systems to support our customers' requirements and to successfully manage our business. Any inability to successfully manage the procurement, development, implementation, execution or maintenance of such systems, including matters related to system and data security, cybersecurity, privacy, reliability, compliance, performance and access, as well as any inability of these systems to fulfill their intended purpose, could have an adverse effect on our business. See "Our operations and our customer relationships may be adversely affected by disruptions to our information technology (IT) systems, including disruptions from cybersecurity breaches of our IT infrastructure" above.

     We are also subject to increasing expectations and data security requirements from our customers, including those related to the U.S. Federal Acquisition Regulation, U.S. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, and U.S. Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification. In addition, we must comply with increasingly complex and rigorous regulatory standards enacted to protect business and personal data in various jurisdictions. For example, the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation, and similar legislation in other jurisdictions in which we operate, impose additional obligations on companies regarding the handling of personal data and provide certain individual privacy rights to persons whose data is stored. Compliance with customer expectations and existing, proposed and recently enacted laws and regulations can be costly; any failure to comply with these expectations and regulatory standards could subject us to legal and reputational risks. Misuse of or failure to secure personal information could also result in violation of data privacy laws and regulations, proceedings against the Company by governmental entities or others, fines and penalties, damage to our reputation and credibility and could have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.
We may be required to make larger contributions to our defined benefit pension and other benefit plans in the future.
We maintain defined benefit and defined contribution pension plans, as well as other benefit plans globally. Our pension obligations are based on certain assumptions relating to plan asset performance, salary changes, employee turnover, retirement ages, life expectancy, expected healthcare costs, the performance of the financial markets, future interest rates, and plan and legislative changes. If actual results or future expectations differ from these assumptions or if statutory funding requirements change, the amounts we are obligated to contribute to the pension plans may increase and such increase could be significant. We are also required to contribute amounts to our other benefit plans to meet local statutory or such plans' funding requirements. The amounts we are obligated to contribute may increase due to legislative or other changes.
Failure to comply with the conditions of government grants may lead to grant repayments and adversely impact our financial performance.
We have received grants from government organizations or other third parties as incentives related to capital investments or other expenditures. These grants often have future conditions with which we must comply. If we do not meet these future conditions, we could be obligated to repay all or a portion of the grant, which could adversely affect our financial position and operating results. In addition, there can be no assurance that we will qualify for, and/or collect, further COVID Subsidies, which could also adversely affect our financial position and operating results.
There are inherent uncertainties involved in the judgments, estimates, and assumptions used in the preparation of our financial statements. Any changes in judgments, estimates and assumptions could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgments, estimates, and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Judgments, estimates, and assumptions are inherently subject to change in future periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
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Our credit agreement contains restrictive and financial covenants that may impair our ability to conduct business, and the failure to comply with such covenants could cause our outstanding debt to become immediately payable.
Our credit agreement contains restrictive covenants that limit our management's discretion with respect to certain business matters. Among other factors, these covenants limit our ability and our subsidiaries' ability to incur additional debt, create liens or other encumbrances, change the nature of our business, sell or otherwise dispose of assets, make certain investments and payments, repurchase SVS for cancellation if a defined leverage ratio exceeds a specified amount (Repurchase Restriction), merge or consolidate with other entities, or effect specified changes in control. This agreement also contains certain financial covenants related to indebtedness and interest coverage. If we are not able to comply with these covenants, our outstanding debt could become immediately due and payable, and the incurrence of additional debt under our revolving credit facility may not be allowed, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and ability to conduct our business.
We are subject to interest rate fluctuations.
Borrowings under our revolver generally bear interest at a selected rate plus a margin ranging from 0.75% to 2.5%, depending on the rate we select and a defined consolidated leverage ratio (and commitment fees range between 0.35% and 0.50%, depending on such leverage ratio). Our term loans currently bear interest at LIBOR plus a specified margin (2.125% for one term loan and 2.5% for the other). These borrowings expose us to interest rate risks due to fluctuations in these rates and margins, and our interest rate swap agreements only apply to a portion of the total borrowings under our term loans. Significant interest rate fluctuations may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Changes to LIBOR may negatively impact us.

    The U.K. Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, has announced that it intends to stop encouraging or requiring banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. Currently, however, there is uncertainty as to the timing and methods of transition to alternate rates. We have obligations under our credit facility, lease arrangements, derivative instruments, and financing and discounting programs that are indexed to LIBOR (LIBOR Agreements). The interest rates under these agreements are subject to change when LIBOR ceases to exist. See note 21 to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18. If LIBOR is phased out or transitioned, we cannot assure that any applicable alternate reference rates will result in substantially similar interest rate calculations under the LIBOR Agreements. If any such alternative reference rates are higher than LIBOR, interest rates under the affected LIBOR Agreements would increase, which would adversely impact our interest expense, A/R discount charges, and our results of operations and cash flows. In addition, with respect to our interest rate swap agreements, hedge ineffectiveness could result due to the cessation of LIBOR if such agreements transition under the International Swaps and Derivative Association (ISDA) protocols using a different spread adjustment as compared to the underlying hedged debt. We will continue to monitor developments with respect to the cessation of LIBOR, and will evaluate potential impacts on the LIBOR Agreements and our financial results. However, we are currently unable to predict when the publication of LIBOR will cease, nor what the future replacement rates or consequences on our operations or financial results will be.
Deterioration in financial markets or in the macro-economic environment may adversely affect our ability to raise funds or increase the cost of raising funds.
We currently have access to a revolver, which matures in June 2023. We may also issue or wish to incur additional debt or issue equity securities to fund our operations or make additional acquisitions. Our ability to borrow or raise capital, or renew or increase our third-party indebtedness may be impacted if financial markets are unstable. Disruptions in the capital and credit markets could adversely affect our ability to draw on our revolver (or any successor or additional facility). Our access to funds under our credit facility (or any successor or additional facility) will be dependent on the ability of our senior lenders to meet their funding commitments. They may not be able to meet their funding commitments to us if they experience shortages of capital and liquidity or if they experience excessive volumes of borrowing requests from us and other borrowers within a short period of time. Longer term disruptions in the capital and credit markets as a result of uncertainty, changing or increased regulation, reduced alternatives, or failures of significant financial institutions could adversely affect our access to liquidity needed for our business. Any disruption could require us to take measures to conserve cash until the markets stabilize or until alternative credit arrangements or other funding sources can be arranged. Such measures could include deferring capital expenditures, and reducing or eliminating discretionary uses of cash.
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Our credit rating may be downgraded.
Any negative change in our credit rating or outlook may make it more expensive for us to raise additional capital in the future on terms that are acceptable to us, if at all.
The interest of our controlling shareholder, Onex Corporation, with an approximate 81% voting interest, may conflict with the interests of other shareholders.
Onex Corporation (Onex) beneficially owns all of our outstanding multiple voting shares (MVS) and less than 1% of our outstanding SVS. The number of SVS and MVS beneficially owned by Onex represents approximately 81% of the voting interest in Celestica. Accordingly, Onex has the ability to exercise significant influence over our business and affairs and generally has the power to determine all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders where our shares vote together as a single class. Onex may make decisions regarding Celestica and our business that are opposed to other shareholders' interests or with which other shareholders may disagree. Onex's voting power could have the effect of deterring or preventing a change in control of our Corporation that might otherwise be beneficial to our other shareholders. Through its shareholdings, Onex has the power to elect our directors and its approval is required for significant corporate transactions such as certain amendments to our Restated Articles of Incorporation (Articles), the sale of all or substantially all of our assets and plans of arrangement. The directors so elected have the authority, subject to applicable laws, to appoint or replace senior management, cause us to issue additional SVS or MVS or repurchase SVS or MVS, declare dividends or take other actions.
Gerald W. Schwartz, the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Onex, indirectly owns shares representing the majority of the voting rights of the shares of Onex. The interests of Onex and Mr. Schwartz may differ from the interests of the remaining holders of SVS. For additional information about our principal shareholders, see Item 7(A), "Major Shareholders." Also see Item 7(B), "Related Party Transactions" for a description of related party transactions involving Onex and/or Mr. Schwartz.
Onex has, from time-to-time, issued debentures exchangeable and redeemable under certain circumstances for our SVS, entered into forward equity agreements with respect to our SVS, sold our SVS (after exchanging MVS for SVS), or redeemed these debentures through the delivery of our SVS, and could take similar actions in the future. These sales may impact our share price or have consequences on our debt and ownership structure.
We are subject to litigation, which may result in substantial litigation expenses, settlement costs or judgments, require the time and attention of key management resources, and result in adverse publicity, any of which may negatively impact our financial performance.
We are from time to time party to various copyright, patent and trademark infringement, unfair competition, breach of contract, customs, employment and other legal actions incidental to our business, as plaintiff or defendant, as well as various other claims, suits, investigations and legal proceedings (including securities class action and shareholder derivative lawsuits which have been settled or dismissed). Additional legal claims or regulatory matters may arise in the future and could involve matters relating to commercial disputes, government regulation and compliance, intellectual property, antitrust, tax, employment or shareholder issues, product liability claims and other issues on a global basis. Regardless of the merits of the claims, litigation may be both time-consuming and disruptive to our business. The defense and ultimate outcome of any lawsuits or other legal proceedings may result in higher expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. We cannot predict the final outcome of such lawsuits or the likelihood that other proceedings will be initiated against us. Accordingly, the cost of defending against such lawsuits or any future lawsuits or proceedings may be high and, in any event, these legal proceedings may result in the diversion of our management's time and attention away from our business. In the event that there is an adverse ruling in any legal proceeding, we may be required to make payments to third parties that could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in accounting standards enacted by the relevant standard-setting bodies may adversely affect our reported operating results, profitability and financial performance.
Accounting standards are revised periodically and/or expanded upon by applicable standard-setting bodies. While these accounting changes do not typically affect the economics of our business, such standards have in the past, and may in the future, have a significant effect on our accounting methods and reported results. Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS. Our reported financial information may not be comparable to the information reported by our competitors or other public companies that use different accounting standards.
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The market price of our SVS has been volatile.
Volatility in our business can result in significant price and volume fluctuations in the market price of our SVS. Factors such as changes in our operating results, announcements by our customers, competitors or other events affecting companies in the electronics industry, currency fluctuations, general market fluctuations, macro-economic conditions, and External Events may cause the market price of our SVS to decline. In addition, if our operating results do not meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the price of our SVS could decline. Furthermore, the existence of our NCIB may cause our SVS price to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program, and repurchases under the NCIB expose us to risks resulting from a reduction in the size of our "public float," which may reduce our trading volume as well as our SVS price.
There can be no assurance that we will continue to repurchase SVS for cancellation.
Although we currently have an NCIB in effect, whether we repurchase SVS under such NCIB for cancellation, and the amount and timing of any such repurchases, is subject to the Repurchase Restriction, capital availability and periodic determinations by our Board of Directors (Board) that SVS repurchases are in the best interest of our shareholders and are in compliance with all applicable laws and agreements. Any future permitted SVS repurchases, including their timing and amount, may be affected by, among other factors: our consolidated leverage ratio (as defined in our credit facility); our views on potential future capital requirements for strategic transactions, including acquisitions; debt service requirements; our credit rating; changes to applicable tax laws or corporate laws; and changes to our business model. In addition, the amount we spend and the number of SVS we are able to repurchase for cancellation under any NCIB or substantial issuer bid may further be affected by a number of other factors, including the SVS we repurchase to satisfy stock-based compensation awards, the price of our SVS and blackout periods in which we are restricted from repurchasing SVS. Our SVS repurchases may change from time to time, and even if permitted under our credit facility, we cannot provide assurance that we will continue to repurchase SVS for cancellation in any particular amounts or at all. A reduction in or elimination of our SVS repurchases could have a negative effect on our stock price.
Potential unenforceability of judgments.
We are incorporated under the laws of the Province of Ontario, Canada. Our controlling persons, a majority of our directors, and certain of our officers are residents of (or are organized in) Canada. Also, a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of these persons are located outside of the U.S. As a result, it may be difficult to effect service of process within the U.S. upon those directors, officers, or controlling persons who are not residents of the U.S, or to enforce judgments in the U.S. obtained in courts of the U.S. It may also be difficult for shareholders to enforce a U.S. judgment in Canada predicated upon the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal or state securities laws or to succeed in a lawsuit in Canada based only on U.S. federal or state securities laws.
Negative publicity could adversely affect our reputation as well as our business, financial results and share price.
Unfavorable media related to our industry, company, brand, marketing, personnel, operations, business performance, or prospects may affect our share price and the performance of our business, regardless of its accuracy or inaccuracy. The speed at which negative publicity can be disseminated has increased dramatically with the capabilities of electronic communication, including social media outlets, websites, blogs, and newsletters. Our success in maintaining, extending, and expanding our brand image depends on our ability to adapt to this rapidly changing media environment. Adverse publicity or negative commentary from any media outlet could damage our reputation and reduce the demand for our products, which would adversely affect our business.
Our business and operations could be adversely impacted by environmental, social and governance (ESG) initiatives.

Concern over climate change has led to international legislative and regulatory initiatives directed at limiting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Proposed and existing efforts to address climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions could directly or indirectly affect our costs of energy, materials, manufacturing, distribution, packaging and other operating costs, which could adversely impact our business and financial results.

Further, investors are placing a greater emphasis on non-financial factors, including ESG factors, when evaluating investment opportunities. Although we actively manage a broad range of ESG matters, including the potential impact of our business on society and the environment, there can be no certainty that we will manage such issues effectively, or that we will successfully meet society’s expectations in this regard. The perception of our operations held by our shareholders, potential investors, suppliers, customers, other stakeholders, or the communities in which we do business may depend, in part, on the ESG standards we have chosen to aspire to meet, whether or not we meet these standards on a timely basis or at all, and whether or not we meet external ESG factors they deem relevant. In addition, notwithstanding our achievements in these
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regards, the subjective nature and wide variety of methods and processes used by various stakeholders, including investors, to assess a company with respect to ESG criteria can result in the perception of negative ESG factors or a misrepresentation of our ESG policies and practices. In addition, by electing to set and publicly share our ESG standards, our business may face increased scrutiny related to ESG activities. As a result, our reputation could be harmed if we fail to act effectively in the areas in which we report. In addition, our failure to achieve progress on our ESG policies and practices on a timely basis, or at all, or to meet ESG criteria set by third parties, could adversely affect our SVS price, business, financial performance, or growth.

Item 4.    Information on the Company
A.    History and Development of the Company
We were incorporated in Ontario, Canada on September 27, 1996. Our legal and commercial name is Celestica Inc. We are a corporation domiciled in the Province of Ontario, Canada and operate under the Business Corporations Act (Ontario) (OBCA). Our principal executive offices are located at 5140 Yonge Street, Suite 1900, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M2N 6L7. Our telephone number is (416) 448-5800, and our internet address is www.celestica.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.
Prior to our incorporation, we were an IBM manufacturing unit that provided manufacturing services to IBM for more than 75 years. In 1993, we began providing electronics manufacturing services to non-IBM customers. In October 1996, we were purchased from IBM by an investor group led by Onex, and in 1998, we completed our initial public offering.
A description of our acquisition activities, our principal capital expenditures (including property, plant and equipment), and our financing activities over the last three financial years is set forth in notes 3, 4, 7, 12, 13, 22, and 25 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18, and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A."
A description of our divestiture activities (including our restructuring activities) over the last three financial years is set forth in notes 6, 7 and 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18, and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A," including a discussion of the consummation of the sale of our real property located in Toronto, Ontario, and related transition matters. Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A" also describes principal divestitures (including our restructuring activities) currently in progress and planned for 2021.
A description of our significant commitments for capital expenditures as at December 31, 2020 and those currently in progress and planned for 2021 is set forth in Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Liquidity — Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations: Additional Commitments."
    See "Overview — Celestica's business" and "Recent Developments" in Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A" for a discussion of the anticipated impact of our CCS Review, including the Cisco Disengagement, and related restructuring actions; as well as recent adverse trends impacting our businesses, including the impact of COVID-19 on our business in 2020. 
There were no public takeover offers by third parties in respect of the Corporation's SVS or MVS or by the Corporation in respect of other companies' shares which occurred during the last or current financial year.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is http://www.sec.gov.
B.    Business Overview
General
We deliver innovative supply chain solutions globally to customers in two operating and reporting segments: Advanced Technology Solutions (ATS) and Connectivity & Cloud Solutions (CCS).
Our ATS segment consists of our ATS end market, and is comprised of our A&D, Industrial, Energy, HealthTech, and Capital Equipment businesses. Our Capital Equipment business is comprised of our semiconductor, display, and power & signal distribution equipment businesses. Our CCS segment consists of our Communications and Enterprise end markets. Our Enterprise end market is comprised of our servers and storage businesses. All period percentages and financial information in this Annual Report reflect the current presentation. See note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.
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Our customers include original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), cloud-based and other service providers, including hyperscalers, and other companies in a wide range of industries. Our global headquarters is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We operate a network of sites and centers of excellence (discussed below) strategically located in North America, Europe and Asia, with specialized end-to-end supply chain capabilities tailored to meet specific market and customer product lifecycle requirements.
We offer a comprehensive range of product manufacturing and related supply chain services to customers in both of our segments, including design and development, new product introduction, engineering services, component sourcing, electronics manufacturing and assembly, testing, complex mechanical assembly, systems integration, precision machining, order fulfillment, logistics, asset management, product licensing, and after-market repair and return services. Within design and development, our HPS offering (previously referred to as Joint Design and Manufacturing, or JDM) includes the development of hardware platforms and design solutions in collaboration with customers, as well as management of the program's design and aspects of the supply chain, manufacturing, and after-market support. Our HPS offering has expanded from joint design and manufacturing services to a full suite of hardware platform solutions and aftermarket services. As a result, we believe that the term JDM no longer accurately captures the breadth of our advanced R&D investments in hardware and technology platforms, or the broad end-to-end services we provide throughout the product lifecycle, from design to aftermarket support. As a result, we now refer to JDM as Hardware Platform Solutions, or HPS.
We believe our services and solutions create value for our customers by enabling their strategies, while accelerating their time-to-market, and by providing higher quality, lower cost, and reduced cycle times (as compared to insourcing) in our customers' supply chains. We believe this results in lower total cost of ownership, greater flexibility, higher return on invested capital and improved competitive advantage for our customers in their respective markets.
We depend on a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenue. In the aggregate, our top 10 customers represented 66% of our total 2020 revenue (2019 — 65%). In 2020, no customer individually represented 10% or more of total revenue (Cisco Systems, Inc. accounted for 9% of total 2020 revenue). In 2019, we had one customer (Cisco Systems, Inc.) that individually represented 10% or more of total revenue. Significant reductions in, or the loss of, revenue from these or any of our major customers may have a material adverse effect on us. See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "We are dependent on a limited number of customers and end markets. A decline in revenue from, or the loss of, any significant customer, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results." Also see Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments Segment Environment: CCS Segment" for a discussion of the Cisco Disengagement, as well as other disengagements stemming from our CCS Review, and the anticipated impact of these disengagements on our business.
Products and services in our ATS segment are extensive and are often more regulated than in our CCS segment, and can include the following: government-certified and highly-specialized manufacturing, electronic and enclosure-related services for A&D customers; high-precision semiconductor and display equipment and integrated subsystems; a wide range of industrial automation, controls, test and measurement devices; advanced solutions for surgical instruments, diagnostic imaging and patient monitoring; and efficiency products to help manage and monitor the energy and power industries. Our ATS segment businesses typically have higher margin profiles and margin volatility, higher working capital requirements, and longer product life cycles than the businesses in our CCS segment. Products and services in our CCS segment consist predominantly of enterprise-level data communications and information processing infrastructure products, and can include routers, switches, data center interconnects, servers and storage-related products used by a wide range of businesses and cloud-based and other service providers to manage digital connectivity, commerce and social media applications. Our CCS segment businesses typically have lower margin profiles, lower working capital requirements, and higher volumes than the businesses in our ATS segment. Within our CCS segment, however, our HPS business (which includes firmware/software enablement across all primary IT infrastructure data center technologies and aftermarket services) typically has a higher margin profile than our traditional CCS businesses, but also requires specific investments (including R&D) and higher working capital. As a result, our CCS segment margin can fluctuate from period to period depending on our mix of CCS segment business in any quarter.
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We remain committed to making the investments we deem necessary to support our long-term growth strategy, strengthen our competitive position, enhance customer satisfaction, and increase long-term shareholder value. Within both of our segments, we are focused on: increased penetration in our end markets; diversifying our customer mix and product portfolios, including increasing design and development, engineering, and after-market services (higher value-added services); and diversifying our capabilities and supply chains. In response to slower growth rates and increased pricing pressures in our traditional markets, which continue to account for a substantial portion of our revenue, we intend to continue to concentrate on expanding our business beyond such traditional markets, including through CCS segment growth initiatives focused on our newly-reshaped CCS segment portfolio, and by continuing to pursue new customers and acquisition opportunities in our ATS segment. See "Celestica’s Strategy" below for a discussion of our strategy, and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Operating Goals and Priorities" for a discussion of our current priorities.
Electronics Manufacturing Services Industry
Overview
Leading EMS companies manage global networks that are capable of delivering customized supply chain solutions. They offer end-to-end services for the entire product lifecycle, including design and engineering services, manufacturing, assembly, testing, systems integration, fulfillment and after-market services. Our customers, which include OEMs, cloud-based and other service providers (including hyperscalers), and other companies in a wide range of industries, outsource these services to address challenges related to cost, asset utilization, quality, time-to-market, demand volatility, customer support, and rapidly changing technologies.
We believe outsourcing by these companies will continue across a number of industries as a means to:
Reduce Operating Costs and Invested Capital. EMS companies with global infrastructure can provide access to a network of manufacturing sites with supply chain management expertise, advanced engineering capabilities, flexible capacity and economies of scale. By outsourcing to EMS companies, customers can reduce their overall product lifecycle and operating costs, working capital, and property, plant and equipment investment requirements.
Focus Resources on Core Competencies. Many EMS customers prioritize their resources on their core competencies of product development, sales, marketing and customer service, by outsourcing design, engineering, manufacturing, supply chain, product lifecycle management, and other product support requirements to their EMS partners.
Improve Time-to-Market. Short product lifecycles require companies that use our services to continually reduce the time and cost of bringing products to market. We believe that such companies can significantly improve their product development cycles and enhance time-to-market by benefiting from the expertise and infrastructure of EMS providers, including their capabilities relating to design and engineering services, prototyping and the rapid ramp-up of new products to high-volume production, all with the critical support of global supply chain management and manufacturing networks.
Utilize EMS Companies' Procurement, Inventory Management and Logistics Expertise. We believe that the successful manufacturing of electronic products requires significant resources to manage the complexities in planning, procurement and inventory management, frequent design changes, short product lifecycles and product demand fluctuations. Companies can help manage these complexities by outsourcing to those EMS providers that (i) possess sophisticated IT systems and global supply chain management capabilities and (ii) can leverage significant component procurement advantages to lower product costs.
Access Leading Engineering Capabilities and Technologies. EMS providers can assist companies in the development of new product concepts, the re-design of existing products, and improvements with respect to the performance, cost and time required to bring products to market. In addition, companies can gain access to high-quality manufacturing expertise and capabilities in the areas of advanced process, interconnect and test technologies.
Improve Access to Global Markets. EMS companies with global infrastructure and support capabilities help to provide customers with efficient world-wide manufacturing solutions, distribution capabilities and after-market services.
Access Value-Added Service Offerings. EMS providers strive to expand their offerings to include services such as design, fulfillment and after-market services, including repair and recycling, to encourage companies to outsource more of their cost of goods sold.
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Celestica's Strategy
We constantly seek to advance our quality, engineering, manufacturing and supply chain capabilities to help our customers achieve a competitive advantage. We will continue to focus on our pursuit of the following, intended to strengthen our competitive position and enhance customer satisfaction and shareholder value:
Increase Penetration in our End Markets/Offerings. We strive to establish a diverse customer base. Our goal is to increase our presence across our end markets, with particular emphasis on CCS segment growth initiatives focused on our newly-reshaped CCS segment portfolio, including our HPS business, and expanding our ATS segment, both organically and through acquisitions. Revenue from our HealthTech and Capital Equipment businesses for 2020 increased by an aggregate of approximately 30% from 2019. Within our CCS segment, we continue to expand our HPS offering, which accounted for 15% of our 2020 revenue. Our Lifecycle Solutions revenue, which is comprised of our aggregate ATS segment and HPS business revenues, represented 51% of our 2020 revenue, and is expected to grow in subsequent years. We intend to continue to expand our portfolio in higher margin service offerings (including HPS).

Our end market revenue as a percentage of total revenue is as follows:
201820192020
ATS33%39%36%
Communications41%40%42%
Enterprise26%21%22%
Selectively Pursue Acquisitions and Strategic Transactions. We will continue to selectively seek acquisition opportunities and strategic transactions in order to (i) profitably grow our revenue, (ii) further develop strategic relationships with customers in our end markets; (iii) enhance the scope of our capabilities and service offerings, (iv) enhance our intellectual property portfolio, and (v) expand our capabilities and offerings to include further aftermarket services and product licensing opportunities.
Continuously Improve Operational Performance. We will continue to focus on: (i) managing our mix and volume of business and service offerings to improve our overall margins, (ii) leveraging our supply chain practices globally to lower materials costs, minimize lead times and improve our planning cycle to better meet volatility in customer demand and improve asset utilization and inventory levels, (iii) successfully ramping new programs, and (iv) improving operating efficiencies to reduce costs and improve margins. In order to help us streamline our processes, we continue to invest in our "digital factory," which automates and connects our equipment, people and systems throughout our global network, including our customers and suppliers. Although our overall revenues decreased in 2020 compared to 2019, our mix of programs, and volume leverage across several of our businesses had a favorable impact on our gross margin in 2020. In addition, our cost reductions initiatives, intended to further streamline our business, increase operational efficiencies and improve our productivity, had a favorable impact on our profitability in 2020.
Develop and Grow Trusted Relationships with Leading Customers. We continue to pursue profitable, strategic relationships with industry leaders that we believe can benefit from our services and solutions. We strive to respond to our customers' needs with speed, flexibility and predictability. We have established and maintain strong relationships with a diverse mix of leading OEMs, cloud-based and other service providers and other companies across our end markets. We believe that our customer base is a strong potential source of growth for us as we seek to strengthen these relationships through the delivery of additional services.  
Expand Range of Service Offerings and Continue to Invest in Developing New Technology, Quality Products and Supply Chain Solutions and Services. We continually seek to expand the services we offer to our customers, and we are committed to meeting our customers' needs in the areas of technology, engineering, quality, product lifecycle management and supply chain management. We believe our expertise in these areas enables us to meet the rigorous demands of our customers, allows us to produce a variety of electronic products ranging from high-volume electronics to highly complex technology infrastructure products used in a broad array of end markets, and allows us to deliver consistently reliable products to our customers. We also believe the systems and collaborative processes associated with our expertise in supply chain management help us to adjust our operations to meet customer lead time requirements, and quickly and effectively deliver products directly to end customers. We collaborate with our suppliers to influence component design for the benefit of our customers. As a result of the successes that we have had in these areas, we have been recognized with numerous customer and industry achievement awards.
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    See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Operating Goals and Priorities" for a discussion of our current priorities and areas of focus.
Celestica's Business
Innovative Supply Chain Solutions and Services
We are a global provider of innovative supply chain solutions. We offer a range of services including design and development, engineering services, supply chain management, new product introduction, component sourcing, electronics manufacturing, assembly, testing, complex mechanical assembly, systems integration, precision machining, order fulfillment, logistics, asset management, product licensing, and after-market repair and return services. Our design and development services include our HPS offering, which consists of developing hardware platforms and design solutions in collaboration primarily with CCS segment customers, as well as managing aspects of the supply chain and manufacturing. Our HPS offering has expanded from joint design and manufacturing services to a full suite of hardware platform solutions (including firmware/software enablement across all primary IT infrastructure data center technologies) and aftermarket services. We believe that our HPS offering helps to differentiate us from other EMS providers, by encompassing advanced technology design solutions that customers can tailor to their specific platform applications. We execute our business in our global network of sites, including our designated centers of excellence, strategically located in North America, Europe and Asia. We leverage these sites and centers of excellence, information technology, and our supply chain expertise using collaborative processes and a team of highly skilled, customer-focused employees. We believe that our ability to deliver a range of supply chain and hardware solutions to our customers provides them with a competitive lead time, and advantages in quality, flexibility and total cost of ownership.
The objective of our centers of excellence program is to help ensure that our operations reflect a solid understanding of the markets we serve, have current capabilities and standardized practices, and are positioned to provide efficiency, consistency, and value to our customers around the globe. To obtain "center of excellence" status, our sites must meet our defined criteria pertaining to quality, supply chain capabilities, Lean and Six Sigma, market specific certifications (to the extent applicable), and other matters regarding their operations. In addition, we have established a Master Validation Plan to help ensure that our IT systems that support regulated industries, including HealthTech and A&D, are compliant with customer expectations with respect to data security.
Quality, Lean and Six Sigma Culture
We believe one of our strengths is our ability to consistently deliver high-quality services and products. We have an extensive quality management system that focuses on continual process improvement and achieving high levels of customer satisfaction. We employ a variety of advanced statistical engineering techniques and other tools to assist in improving product and service quality. Most of our principal sites are ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certified (international quality management standards), and have other required industry-specific certifications.
In addition to these standards, we deploy Lean initiatives to help drive manufacturing efficiencies, cycle times velocities and improved product quality, and use Six Sigma extensively in an effort to reduce process variation and to drive root cause problem-solving. Lean and Six Sigma methods are also used in non-production areas to streamline our processes and eliminate waste. We apply the knowledge we gain in our after-market services to help improve the quality and reliability of next-generation products. We believe that success in these areas helps our customers to lower their costs, positioning them more competitively in their respective markets.
Design and Engineering Services
Our global design teams are focused on delivering flexible solutions and expertise, intended to help customers reduce overall product costs, improve time-to-market, introduce competitively differentiated products, and drive hardware innovations. For customer-owned designs, we augment their design teams, and utilize our proprietary design analysis tools to minimize design revisions and to achieve improved manufacturing yields. Our HPS offering includes the development of hardware platforms and design solutions in collaboration with customers, managing aspects of the supply chain, and manufacturing their products. Our HPS offering has expanded from joint design and manufacturing services to a full suite of hardware platform solutions (see "Innovative Supply Chain Solutions and Services" above). It is an engineering-led, intellectual-property-based offering that allows us to drive hardware innovation for our customers and further broaden our value proposition by leveraging our ecosystem partners and broad range of capabilities in this space. We continue to invest in leading-edge product roadmaps and design capabilities aligned with both market standards and emerging technologies in support of our HPS offering. We are currently delivering both partially customized HPS products, and complete hardware platform solutions to customers in the storage, servers, and communications markets. These products are intended to help our customers reach their markets faster and
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enable their strategies, while reducing product costs and building valuable intellectual property for their product portfolios and/or data centers. Through our collective experience with common technologies across multiple industries and product groups, we believe we provide quality and cost-focused solutions for a wide range of our customers' design needs. Revenue attributable to our HPS business has grown by approximately 60% since 2018, due in part to increased demand resulting from COVID-19 in 2020.
We collaborate with some of our core customers' product designers in the early stages of product development, using advanced tools to enable new product ideas to progress from electrical and application-specific integrated circuit design, to simulation, physical layout and design review, all intended to ensure readiness for manufacturing. We use our design expertise to create innovative technologies and hardware product solutions, and leverage key ecosystem partners to drive both innovation and supply chain leverage. Our HPS offering encompasses advanced technology hardware design solutions that customers can tailor to their specific applications. We believe that collaboration between our customers' teams, key ecosystem partners, and our design and manufacturing groups helps to ensure that new designs are released rapidly, smoothly and cohesively into production.
Our engineering services team works with our customers throughout the product life-cycle. We believe our engineering expertise and experience in design review, product test solutions, assembly technology, automation, quality and reliability, position us to deliver the services required to address the challenges facing our customers. We maintain ties with key industry associations and engineering firms to help us stay apprised of advances in technical knowledge.
Prototyping and New Product Introduction
Prototyping is a critical early-stage process in the development of new products. Our engineers collaborate with our customers' engineers to provide quick responses in the early stages of the product development lifecycle.
Supply Chain Management and Services
We use advanced planning, analytics, enterprise resource planning, and supply chain management systems to optimize materials management from suppliers to our customers' customers. We believe that the effective management of the supply chain is critical to our customers' success, as it directly impacts the time and cost required to deliver products to market and the capital requirements associated with carrying inventory.
We strive to reduce our customers' total cost of ownership by providing lower costs and reduced cycle times in their supply chain, and by delivering higher quality products. We also strive to align our preferred suppliers in close proximity to our centers of excellence to increase the speed and flexibility of our supply chain, to deliver higher quality products and to reduce time-to-market.
Through our global supply chain management processes and integrated IT tools, we endeavor to provide our customers with enhanced visibility to balance their global demand and supply requirements, including inventory and order management.
Manufacturing Services
Printed Circuit Board Assembly
Printed circuit board assembly includes the attachment of electronic components, such as capacitors, microprocessors, resistors and memory modules, to printed circuit boards. Our global network of engineers helps us to provide our customers with full printed circuit board (PCB) assembly technology capabilities. These capabilities include design for manufacturing, PCB layout, packaging, assembly (circuit card assembly or CCA), lead-free soldering, test development, and data analytics for complex flexible and rigid-flex circuits and hybrid PCBs.
Complex Mechanical Assembly
We provide systems integration and precision machined components to our Capital Equipment customers. Complex mechanical systems integration consists of multiple interconnected subsystems that interact with various materials, e.g., fluids, solids, particles and rigid bodies. Such systems are often used in advanced manufacturing applications such as semiconductor manufacturing, display manufacturing (including LCD, OLED, QLED and other displays), medical applications using robotics, and other applications such as cash handling machines where precise standards are required. We also provide complex
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mechanical assembly primarily to our aerospace customers, including wire harness assembly, systems integration, sheet metal fabrication, welding and machining.
Precision Machining
We utilize specialized computer-controlled machines to manufacture high quality components to tight tolerance requirements. Such components are often used in applications similar to those noted above for complex mechanical assembly.
Energy Services
We provide integrated solutions and services to our renewable energy customers in the areas of power generation, conversion and monitoring. Our energy portfolio includes power inverters, energy storage products, smart meters and other electronic componentry, and encompasses complete product lifecycle solutions, including design, manufacturing and reliability services.
Systems Assembly and Testing
We use sophisticated technologies in the assembly and testing of our products. We continue to make investments in the development of automated solutions, as well as new assembly and test process techniques intended to enhance product quality, reduce cost and improve delivery time to customers. We work independently and also collaborate with customers and suppliers to develop assembly and test technologies. Systems assembly and testing require sophisticated logistics capabilities to rapidly procure components, assemble products, perform complex testing and distribute products to customers around the world. Our full systems assembly services involve combining and testing a wide range of sub-assemblies and components before shipping them to their final destination. Some customers require custom build-to-order system solutions with very short lead times, and we are focused on using our advanced supply chain management capabilities to respond to our customers' needs.
Quality and Product Assurance
We provide complete product reliability testing, inspection and qualification capabilities to support our customers' full product lifecycle requirements. Our quality and product assurance teams perform product testing to ensure that designs meet or exceed required specifications. We are capable of testing to various industry standards, and we work closely with our customers to execute unique test protocols. We believe that this service allows our customers to assess certification risks early in the product development lifecycle, reducing cost and time-to-market.
Failure Analysis and After-Market Services
Our extensive failure analysis capabilities concentrate on identifying the root cause of product failures and determining corrective actions. Products are subjected to various environmental extremes, including temperature, humidity, vibration, voltage and contamination. Field conditions are simulated in failure analysis laboratories which employ electron microscopes, spectrometers and other advanced equipment. Our engineers work proactively in partnership with suppliers and customers in an effort to discover product failures before products are shipped, and to develop and implement solutions if required.
We also seek to provide value to our customers through our after-market services offerings which include repair, fulfillment, reverse logistics, asset management, reclamation and returns processing and prevention. Our fulfillment offering includes the design and management of integrated supply chain and materials management for light manufacturing and final assembly and reclamation. Our reverse logistics offering includes the design and management of transportation networks, warehousing and distribution of products, asset recovery services, and transportation and supply chain event monitoring. Our returns processing and prevention offering provides our customers with product screening and testing and product design and process analysis. Our reclamation offering includes product disassembly, reassembly and re-use, as well as certified scrap disposition processing. We offer these services individually or integrated through a 'Control Tower' model which coordinates our people, systems and processes with those of our customers to improve service levels by providing an increased level of visibility and analytics throughout the entire after-market value chain.
Product Licensing

With respect to our partners that are seeking to rationalize their product lines, licensing to us provides them with an alternative to sale or discontinuation. Celestica manages the entire business process for the licensed product or product line, including order acceptance, customer service, engineering, supply chain, obsolescence management, manufacturing, logistics, service parts offering, and after-market services. This allows our partners to continue to serve their customers while maintaining ownership of their intellectual property, and to redeploy their resources for other uses.
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Geographies
For each of 2018, 2019 and 2020, approximately 70% of our revenue was produced in Asia and approximately 20% of our revenue was produced in North America. Revenue produced in Canada represented 6% of revenue in 2020 (2019 — 8%; 2018 — 9%). Our property, plant and equipment in Canada represented 8% of our property, plant and equipment at December 31, 2020 (December 31, 2019 — 10%; December 31, 2018 — 9%). A listing of our principal locations is included in Item 4(D), "Information on the Company — Property, Plants and Equipment." Certain geographic information for countries with 10% or more of our external revenue, property, plant and equipment (and commencing in 2019, ROU assets), and intangible assets and goodwill is set forth in note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.
Marketing and Customer Experience
We structure our business development teams by end market, with a focus on offering market insight and expertise, and complete manufacturing and supply chain solutions to our customers. We have customer-focused teams, each headed by a group general manager who oversees the global relationship with our key customers. These teams work with our subject matter experts to meet the requirements of each customer's product or supply chain. Our global network is comprised of customer-focused teams, operational and project managers, and supply chain management teams, as well as senior executives.
We provide comprehensive support before, during and after the delivery of our products and services. We seek to deepen and grow our customer relationships by providing consistent, high-quality implementation and customer support services, which we believe drives customer retention and additional opportunities within our existing customer base.
Customer Concentration and Relationship Management
We target industry-leading customers in each of our segments. Our current CCS segment customers include Dell Technologies, Hewlett-Packard Enterprise, Hewlett-Packard Inc., IBM Corporation, Juniper Networks, Inc., NEC Corporation, Oracle Corporation, and Polycom, Inc. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments Segment Environment: CCS Segment" for a discussion of the Cisco Disengagement, as well as other disengagements stemming from our CCS Review, and the anticipated impact of these disengagements on our business. Our current ATS segment customers include Applied Materials, Inc., Honeywell Inc., Lam Research and Raytheon Company. We are focused on strengthening our relationships with strategic customers through the delivery of new and expanding end-to-end solutions.
The following table sets forth the customers that individually represented 10% or more of total revenue for the years indicated. No customer individually represented 10% or more of total revenue in 2020.
Segment
Year ended December 31
20182019
Cisco Systems, Inc.
CCS14 %12 %
Dell Technologies
CCS10 %*
Total
24 %12 %
* Less than 10%.
Our top 10 customers represented 66%, 65% and 70% of total revenue for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
We generally enter into master supply agreements with our customers that provide the framework for our overall relationship, although such agreements do not guarantee any level of business or fixed pricing. Instead, we bid on a program-by-program basis and typically receive customer purchase orders for specific quantities and timing of products. We believe that our customer-focused factories are flexible and can be reconfigured as needed to meet customer-specific product requirements and fluctuations in volumes (although we do incur increased production costs from time to time in connection with unexpected demand changes). A majority of these supply agreements also require the customer to purchase unused inventory that we have purchased to fulfill that customer's forecasted manufacturing demand. Some of these agreements require us to provide specific price reductions to our customers over the term of the contracts, which has had (and is expected to continue to have) a significant adverse impact on our revenues, gross margin and operating results. Also see Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "Inherent challenges in managing changes in customer demand may impact our planning, supply chain execution and manufacturing, and may adversely affect our operating performance and results."
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Research and Technology Development
We use advanced technology to design, assemble and test the products we manufacture. We continue to invest in our global design services and capabilities to conceive differentiated HPS product solutions for our customers.
We have extensive capabilities across a broad range of specialized assembly, configuration and test processes. We work with a variety of substrates based on the products we build for our customers, from thin, flexible printed circuit boards to highly complex, dense multi-layer printed circuit boards, as well as a broad array of advanced component and attachment technologies employed in our customers' products and our own product designs. We believe that increasing demand for full-system assembly solutions continues to drive technical advancement in complex mechanical assembly and configuration. We also develop and manufacture sub-components, such as optical modules and complex machined parts, intended to drive targeted technical advancements to support these opportunities.
Our automated electronics assembly lines are continuously refreshed with the latest generation technology, with a focus on flexible lines with quick changeover, large board capability, and small component capability. Our assembly capabilities are complemented by advanced test capabilities. The technologies we use include high-speed functional testing, optical, burn-in, vibration, radio frequency, and in-circuit and in-situ dynamic thermal cycling stress testing. Our inspection technology includes X-ray computed tomography, advanced automated optical inspection, three-dimensional paste volumetric inspection and scanning electron microscopy. We work directly with leaders in the equipment industry to optimize their products and solutions or to jointly design solutions to meet the needs of our customers. We apply automation solutions for higher volume products, where possible, to help improve product quality, lower product costs, and increase manufacturing efficiencies.
Our ongoing R&D activities include the development of processes, test technologies, and hardware platform solutions, spanning core data center technologies, that can be used as-is or customized to optimize a customer's specific applications. Our HPS offering is focused on developing design solutions and subsequently managing the other aspects of the supply chain, including product manufacturing. We focus our solutions on developing current and next generation storage, server and communications products (in particular, elements of data centers, which include the development of complete hardware platform solutions to reduce product costs and accelerate time to market, and which we believe will continue to grow). We work directly with our customers to understand their product roadmaps and requirements, and to develop technology solutions intended to meet their particular needs. We are proactive in developing manufacturing techniques that take advantage of the latest component, product and packaging designs. We have worked with, and have taken leadership roles in, industry and academic groups that strive to advance the state of technology in the industry. As we continue to pursue deeper relationships with our customers, and participate in additional services and revenue opportunities with them, we anticipate an increase in our spending in these areas.
Supply Chain Management
We share data electronically with our key suppliers, and help ensure speed of supply through strong relationships with our component suppliers and logistics partners. We view the size and scale of our procurement activities, including our IT systems, as an important competitive advantage, as they enhance our ability to obtain better pricing, influence component packaging and designs, and obtain a supply of components in constrained markets. We procure substantially all of our materials and components on behalf of our customers pursuant to individual purchase orders that are generally short-term in nature.
Components and raw materials are sourced globally, with a majority of electronic components originating from Asian countries. See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "Our ability to successfully manage unexpected changes or risks inherent in our global operations and supply chain may adversely impact our financial performance" for a discussion of various risks related to our foreign operations. All of the products we manufacture or assemble require one or more components. In many cases, there may be only one supplier of a particular component. Some of these components could be rationed in response to supply shortages. We work with our suppliers and customers to attempt to ensure continuity in the supply of these components. In cases where unanticipated customer demand or supply shortages occur, we attempt to arrange for alternative sources of supply, where available, or defer planned production in response to the availability of the critical components. Notwithstanding these efforts, however, we experienced materials constraints from certain suppliers in both of our segments commencing in 2017, due in part to industry-wide shortages for certain electronic components. These constraints were also significantly exacerbated with respect to several of our businesses during 2020 as a result of COVID-19. These shortages caused delays in the production of customer products in both of our segments, and in combination with volatile market demand, negatively impacted our margins and resulted in higher-than-expected levels of inventory in 2020, and resulted in operational and materials inefficiencies and a continued backlog of orders. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments COVID-19" for a discussion of the impact of materials constraints due to COVID-19 on our business during 2020. However, the availability of previously constrained materials has improved generally.
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See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors, "We are dependent on third parties to supply certain materials, and our results can be negatively affected by the availability and cost of such materials." Generally, the prices of principal raw materials are not volatile, and price increases resulting from materials shortages and/or other factors are typically recoverable from our customers.
We utilize our enterprise systems, as well as specific supply chain IT tools, to provide comprehensive information on our logistics, financial and engineering support functions. These systems provide management with the data and analytics required to manage the logistical complexities of our business and are augmented by and integrated with other applications, such as shop floor controls, component and product database management, and design tools.
To minimize the risk associated with inventory, we primarily order materials and components only to the extent necessary to satisfy existing customer orders and forecasts covered by the applicable customer contract terms and conditions. We have implemented specific inventory management strategies with certain suppliers, such as "supplier managed inventory" (pulling inventory at the production line on an as-needed basis) and on-site stocking programs. Our initiatives in Lean and Six Sigma also focus on eliminating excess inventory throughout the supply chain. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, as a result of demand volatility from our customers and the materials constraints from certain suppliers discussed above, we carried higher than expected levels of certain inventory at December 31, 2020.
Intellectual Property
We hold licenses to various technologies which we have acquired in connection with acquisitions. In addition, we believe that we have secured access to technology sufficient for the current conduct of our business.
We regard our manufacturing processes and certain designs as proprietary trade secrets and confidential information. We rely largely upon a combination of trade secret laws, non-disclosure agreements with our customers, suppliers, employees and other parties, and upon our internal security systems, confidentiality procedures and employee confidentiality agreements to maintain the trade secrecy of our designs and manufacturing processes. Although we take steps to protect our trade secrets and other intellectual property, we cannot assure that misappropriation will not occur. See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors, "We may not adequately protect our intellectual property or the intellectual property of others."
Our increased research and design activities have resulted in the growth of our dependence on our patent portfolio. We have over 280 hardware patents that are integral to our HPS business. We anticipate that such growth (and importance) will continue as we expand our business activities. In addition, we currently have a limited number of other patents and patent applications pending to protect our intellectual property. Other factors significant to our proprietary rights include the knowledge and experience of management and personnel, and our ability to develop, enhance and market electronics manufacturing services.
Each of our customers typically provides us with a license to its technology for use in providing electronics manufacturing services to such customer. Generally, the agreements governing such technology grant to us non-exclusive, worldwide licenses with respect to the subject technologies, are typically provided without charge, and terminate upon a material breach by us of the terms of such agreements, or termination of the program to which such licenses relate.
We also license some technology from third parties that we use in providing electronics manufacturing services to our customers. We believe that such licenses are generally available on commercial terms from a number of licensors. Generally, the agreements governing such technology grant to us non-exclusive, worldwide licenses with respect to the subject technologies and terminate upon expiration, or a material breach by us of the terms, of such agreements.
Competition
The EMS industry is highly competitive with multiple global EMS providers competing for customers and programs. Our competitors include Benchmark Electronics, Inc., Flex Ltd., Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., Jabil Inc., Plexus Corp., and Sanmina Corporation, as well as smaller EMS companies that often have a regional, product, service or industry-specific focus, and ODMs (including Quanta Computer Inc., Wistron Corp., Delta Network, Inc., and Accton Technology Corp.) that provide internally designed products and manufacturing services. We provide hardware platform solutions as part of our HPS offering. There may be instances where our hardware platform solutions compete with a customer's hardware offerings.
We also face indirect competition from current and prospective customers who evaluate our capabilities and commercial models against the merits of manufacturing products internally, and from distribution and logistics providers expanding their services across the supply chain, including assembly, fulfillment, logistics and in some cases, engineering services. We compete with different companies depending on the type of service or geographic area. Some of our competitors have greater scale and
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provide a broader range of services than we provide. We believe our competitive advantage is our track record in manufacturing technology, quality, complexity, responsiveness and cost-effective, value-added services. To remain competitive, we believe we must continue to provide technologically advanced manufacturing services and solutions, maintain quality levels, offer flexible delivery schedules, deliver finished products and services on time and compete favorably on price.
The competitive landscape in our CCS segment remains aggressive, as demand growth continues to move from traditional enterprise network infrastructure providers to cloud-based and other service providers, resulting in aggressive bidding from EMS providers and increased competition from ODMs as they further penetrate these markets. As a result of the high concentration of our business in the CCS marketplace, these competitive pressures, aggressive pricing and technology-driven demand shifts, have negatively impacted, and may continue to negatively impact our CCS businesses in future periods. We intend to continue to monitor these dynamics and focus on cost and portfolio management, including HPS growth initiatives, in response to these factors. To enhance our competitiveness, we continue to focus on expanding our service offerings and capabilities beyond our traditional areas of EMS expertise, including expanding our HPS offerings.
See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "We operate in an industry comprised of numerous competitors and aggressive pricing dynamics" and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Overview — Overview of business environment and Recent Developments."
Environmental Matters
We are subject to various federal/national, state/provincial, local, foreign and supra-national laws and regulations, including environmental measures relating to the release, use, storage, treatment, transportation, discharge, disposal and remediation of contaminants, hazardous substances and waste, and health and safety measures related to practices and procedures applicable to the construction and operation of our sites. We have management systems in place designed to maintain compliance with such laws and regulations.
Our past operations and the historical operation by others of our sites may have resulted in soil and groundwater contamination on our sites, and in many jurisdictions in which we operate, environmental laws impose liability for the costs of removal, remediation or risk assessment of hazardous or toxic substances on an owner, occupier or operator of real property even if such person or company was unaware of or not responsible for the discharge or migration of such substances. From time-to-time we investigate, remediate and monitor soil and groundwater contamination at certain operating sites. We generally obtain Phase I or similar environmental assessments (which involve general inspections without soil sampling or groundwater analysis), or review assessment reports undertaken by others, for our manufacturing sites at the time of acquisition or leasing. However, such assessments may not reveal all environmental liabilities (due, for example, to limited available information about prior operations at the properties or other gaps in information at the time we acquire or lease such sites), and assessments have not been obtained for all sites. Where contamination is suspected at sites being acquired or leased, Phase II intrusive environmental assessments (that can include soil and/or groundwater testing) are usually performed. We expect to conduct Phase I or similar environmental assessments in respect of future property acquisitions or leases and intend to perform Phase II assessments where appropriate. Past environmental assessments have not revealed any environmental liability that we believe will have a material adverse effect on our operating results or financial condition, in part because of contractual retention of liability by landlords and former owners at certain sites. However, any such contractual retention of liability may not provide sufficient protection to reduce or eliminate our liability. Third‑party claims for damages or personal injury are also possible and could result in significant costs to us. If more stringent compliance or cleanup standards under environmental laws or regulations are imposed, or the results of future testing and analyses at our current or former sites indicate that we are responsible for the release of hazardous substances into the air, ground and/or water, we may be subject to additional liability. Environmental matters may arise at sites where no problem is currently known or at sites that we may acquire in the future. See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "Compliance with governmental laws and obligations could be costly and may negatively impact our financial performance."
Environmental legislation also occurs at the product level. Celestica works with its customers in connection with compliance with applicable product-level environmental legislation in the jurisdictions where products are manufactured and/or offered for use and sale by our customers.
Backlog
Our A&D business continued to be negatively impacted by materials shortages throughout 2019 and 2020 (particularly in the first half of 2020), most significantly with respect to the availability of certain high reliability parts and machined components, resulting in, among other things, a continued backlog of orders. There was a gradual improvement in this backlog during 2020.
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Although we obtain purchase orders from our customers, they typically do not commit to delivery of products more than 30 to 90 days in advance. We do not believe that the backlog of expected product sales covered by purchase orders is a meaningful measure of future sales, since generally orders may be rescheduled or canceled.
Seasonality
Seasonality is reflected in the mix of products we manufacture from quarter-to-quarter. From time to time, we experience some level of seasonality in our quarterly revenue patterns across certain of our businesses. The addition of new customers has introduced different demand cycles. For example, cloud-based service providers have increased their use of products in our CCS segment in recent periods. These customers and markets are cyclically different from our traditional OEM customers, creating more volatility and unpredictability in our revenue patterns, and additional challenges with respect to the management of our working capital requirements. The pace of technological change, the frequency of customers transferring business among EMS competitors and the constantly changing dynamics of the global economy will also continue to impact us. As a result of these factors, the impact of new program wins or program losses or non-renewals, overall demand variability, and limited visibility in technology end markets, it is difficult to isolate the impact of seasonality on our business. We typically experience our lowest overall revenue levels during the first quarter of each year. There is no assurance that this pattern will continue. See also Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "Our revenue and operating results may vary significantly from period to period."
Controlling Shareholder Interest
Onex is our controlling shareholder with an approximate 81% voting interest in Celestica. Accordingly, Onex has the ability to exercise a significant influence over our business and affairs and generally has the power to determine all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders where the SVS and MVS vote together as a single class. Such matters include electing our Board and thereby influencing significant corporate transactions, including mergers, acquisitions, divestitures and financing arrangements. Gerald W. Schwartz, the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Onex, indirectly owns shares representing the majority of the voting rights of the shares of Onex. For further details, refer to Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "The interest of our controlling shareholder, Onex Corporation, with an approximate 81% voting interest, may conflict with the interests of other shareholders" and footnotes 2 and 3 of Item 7(A) "Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Major Shareholders."
Government Regulation
Information regarding material effects of government regulations on Celestica's business is provided in the risk factors entitled "We are subject to the risk of increasing income and other taxes, tax audits and the challenges of successfully defending our tax positions, and obtaining, renewing or meeting the conditions of tax incentives and credits, any of which may adversely affect our financial performance," "Compliance with governmental laws and obligations could be costly and may negatively impact our financial performance," "Compliance or the failure to comply with employment laws and regulations may negatively impact our financial performance," and "Policies or legislation instituted or proposed by the former or new U.S. administration could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition" in Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors.
Sustainability
We are committed to driving sustainability initiatives through collaboration with our employees, customers, suppliers and local communities. Our Sustainability Report, which is published annually, outlines our sustainability strategy, the progress we have made as a socially responsible organization, and the key activities and milestones we are working to achieve for each of our focus areas: our planet, our product offerings, our people and our communities. Our most recent Sustainability Report, as well as our Corporate Values, can be found on our website: www.celestica.com (information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report).

We strive to minimize the impact of our operations on the environment by working to make our infrastructure sustainable and by reducing our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Since 2009, we have published annual reports documenting our corporate social responsibility programs and environmental sustainability initiatives. We currently report in accordance with the guidance of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), and plan to also issue future reports in accordance with additional standards, such as those of the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) and the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). We are committed to reporting our GHG emissions annually, and have included third-party assurance of our GHG emissions in our annual report since 2013. Since 2010, we have responded to the CDP (formerly the Carbon Disclosure Project) climate change questionnaire, which enables engagement on environmental issues worldwide. Additionally
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in 2020, Celestica set a new GHG emissions reduction target through the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi), which drives ambitious climate action by enabling companies to set science-based emissions reduction targets. We have adopted the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals as part of our sustainability strategy, as well as a Conflict Minerals Policy in accordance with Dodd-Frank. We fully support the objectives of the conflict minerals legislation, which aims to minimize violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries, and expect our suppliers to provide all necessary declarations.

Diversity and Inclusion

We believe in building an inclusive culture that encourages diversity of thought and attributes while allowing employees to thrive, be valued and celebrated. This includes, but is not limited to, gender, race, age, ethnicity, religious or cultural background, disability, marital or family status, sexual orientation, gender identity, education, experiences, perspectives, language and other areas of potential difference. In furtherance of these beliefs, we have adopted a Diversity and Inclusion Policy, under which we are committed to providing a work environment in which everyone feels accepted and valued, by being treated fairly and with respect across the enterprise. Our Diversity and Inclusion Steering Committee (D&I Steering Committee) is comprised of five members of senior management and is co-chaired by the CEO and Chief Human Resources Officer. The D&I Steering Committee oversees diversity and inclusion at Celestica and ensures that diversity and inclusion are incorporated into Celestica’s culture, workplace and talent practices. The D&I Steering Committee has designated a Diversity and Inclusion Committee (D&I Committee) for the purpose of developing and promoting diversity. The D&I Committee is comprised of members designated by the D&I Steering Committee taking into account the diversity attributes, representation from various levels of roles and responsibilities within Celestica, and other factors they determine to be relevant for purposes of ensuring diverse and inclusive representation on the D&I Committee.

During 2020, the following actions were taken with respect to diversity and inclusion at Celestica:
•    Appointed a Diversity and Inclusion Leader to drive the Corporation’s diversity and inclusion strategy.
•    Launched a global Diversity and Inclusion survey, which provided employees with the opportunity to anonymously provide their perspectives on diversity and inclusion at Celestica, and a baseline to measure future progress. We have reviewed the survey data, and identified key focus areas for diversity policy and practice enhancements.
•    Our Chief Executive Officer (CEO) signed the CEO Action for Diversity & Inclusion Pledge, a CEO-driven business initiative for advancing diversity and inclusion within all organizations.

In furtherance of Board diversity, the Board adopted a new Board Diversity Policy in January 2021. In accordance with the Board Diversity Policy, Celestica aspires to attain by its annual meeting in 2023, and thereafter maintain, a Board composition in which at least 30% of the Board are women. Further, when identifying candidates for election or appointment to the Board of Directors, including the director search which is currently underway, the Board and its Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee (NCGC) will:

•    consider candidates who are qualified based on a balance of skills, background, experience and knowledge;
•    take into account diversity considerations such as age, geographical representation from the regions in which Celestica operates, cultural heritage (including Aboriginal peoples (as defined in the Employment Equity Act (Canada) and members of visible minorities) and different abilities (including persons with disabilities);
•    strive to use, to their fullest potential, the Board’s network of relationships, in addition to using third party organizations, that may help identify diverse candidates for joining the Board;
•     ensure that the initial candidate list is comprised of no less than 50% women; and
•    periodically review recruitment and selection protocols to ensure diversity remains an important component of the Board.

From time to time, the Board will review the Board Diversity Policy and assess its effectiveness in promoting a diverse Board.

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Ethical Labor Practices
We maintain a Business Conduct Governance (BCG) Policy, which outlines the ethics and practices we consider necessary for a positive working environment, as well as the high legal and ethical standards to which our employees are held accountable. 100% of our employees have completed BCG Policy training, and we conduct annual re-certifications. Our BCG Policy is available on our website: www.celestica.com (information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report).
In addition, we have well-established policies regarding fair labor practices and guidelines intended to create a respectful, safe and healthy work environment for our employees globally.
We are a founding (and remain a) member of the RBA, a non-profit coalition of electronics companies that, among other things, establishes standards for its members in responsible and ethical practices in the areas of labor, environmental compliance, employee health and safety, ethics and social responsibility. The RBA Code of Conduct outlines industry standards intended to ensure that working conditions in the supply chain are safe, workers are treated with respect and dignity, and manufacturing processes are environmentally responsible. We continually work to implement, manage and audit our compliance with the RBA Code of Conduct.
We are committed to the development and fair treatment of our global workforce, including promotion of a diverse workforce, an inclusive work environment, equal employment opportunity hiring practices and policies, and anti-harassment, workforce safety and anti-reprisal policies.
Financial Information Regarding Geographic Areas
Details of our financial information regarding geographic areas are disclosed in note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18, in Item 4(B) "Information on the Company — Business Overview — Geographies," and in Item 4(D) "Information on the Company — Property, Plants and Equipment." Risks associated with our foreign operations are disclosed in Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors, including "Our ability to successfully manage unexpected changes or risks inherent in our global operations and supply chain may adversely impact our financial performance."
C.    Organizational Structure
Onex, an Ontario corporation, is the Corporation's controlling shareholder with an approximate 81% voting interest in Celestica (via its direct and indirect beneficial ownership of approximately 18.6 million (100%) of the Corporation's MVS, and approximately 0.4 million of the Corporation's SVS). Gerald W. Schwartz is the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Onex, and indirectly owns multiple voting shares of Onex representing the majority of the voting rights of the shares of Onex (also see footnotes 2 and 3 to the Major Shareholders Table in Item 7(A) below).
Celestica conducts its business through subsidiaries operating on a worldwide basis. The following companies are considered significant subsidiaries of Celestica, and each of them is wholly-owned, directly or indirectly, by Celestica:
Celestica Cayman Holdings 1 Limited, a Cayman Islands corporation;
Celestica Cayman Holdings 9 Limited, a Cayman Islands corporation;
Celestica (Dongguan-SSL) Technology Limited, a China corporation;
Celestica Holdings Pte Limited, a Singapore corporation;
Celestica Hong Kong Limited, a Hong Kong corporation;
Celestica LLC, a Delaware, U.S. limited liability company;
Celestica (Thailand) Limited, a Thailand corporation;
Celestica (USA) Inc., a Delaware, U.S. corporation;
Celestica International Limited Partnership, an Ontario, Canada partnership; and
2480333 Ontario Inc., an Ontario, Canada corporation.
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D.    Property, Plants and Equipment
The following table summarizes our principal owned and leased properties as of February 22, 2021. These sites are used to provide manufacturing services and solutions, including the manufacture of printed circuit boards, assembly and configuration of final systems, complex mechanical assembly, precision machining, as well as other related services and customer support activities, including design and development, warehousing, distribution, fulfillment and after-market services, with a total of approximately 6.5 million square feet of productive capacity.
Major locations
Square Footage(1)
(in thousands)
Segment
Owned/Leased (2)
Lease Expiration Dates
Canada (3)(5)
341ATS/CCSLeasedbetween 2025 and 2028
Arizona 111ATSLeased2027
California(3)
202ATS/CCSLeasedbetween 2021 and 2023
Oregon(3)
240ATSLeasedbetween 2021 and 2026
Massachusetts60ATSOwnedN/A
Minnesota(3)
230ATSLeasedbetween 2021 and 2024
Mexico(3)
463ATS/CCSLeased2023
Ireland(3)
82ATS/CCSLeasedbetween 2024 and 2030
Spain109ATSOwnedN/A
Romania260ATS/CCSOwnedN/A
China(3)(4)
918ATS/CCSOwned/Leasedbetween 2021 and 2056
Malaysia(3)(4)
1,388ATS/CCSOwned/Leasedbetween 2022 and 2060
Thailand(3)(4)
982ATS/CCSOwned/Leasedbetween 2021 and 2048
Singapore(3)
199ATS/CCSLeasedbetween 2021 and 2023
South Korea (3)
219ATSOwned/Leased2021
Japan(3)
594ATS/CCSOwned/Leasedbetween 2022 and 2023
Laos121CCSLeasedbetween 2021 and 2023
(1)Represents estimated square footage being used.
(2)No owned or leased real properties are pledged as security under our credit facility.
(3)Represents multiple locations. Excludes 110 thousand square feet of leased space in Minnesota (lease expires 2032) to expand our Atrenne operations. Retrofitting of this space is nearly complete, and we expect occupancy to commence in the second quarter of 2021.
(4)With respect to these locations, the land is leased, and the buildings are either owned or leased by us.
(5)On March 7, 2019, we completed the sale of our real property located in Toronto, Ontario (which included the site of our former corporate headquarters). As part of the property sale, among other things, we entered into a 10-year lease in March 2019 with the purchaser of such property for our new corporate headquarters (to be built by such purchaser on the site of our former location). The commencement date of this lease will be determined by the purchaser based on completion of construction of the new building, and is currently targeted to be May 2023. In connection therewith, we completed a temporary relocation of our corporate headquarters in the second quarter of 2019. Although we expect to incur certain capitalized and transition costs once the move into our new corporate headquarters commences, such costs cannot be estimated at this time, but are expected to be funded from cash on hand. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Liquidity — Toronto Real Property and Related Transactions."
We consider each of the properties in the table above to be adequate for its purpose and suitably utilized according to the individual nature and requirements of the relevant operations. We currently expect to be able to extend the terms of expiring leases or to find replacement sites on commercially acceptable terms. Also see "Environmental Matters" in Item 4(B) above. Our principal executive office is located at 5140 Yonge Street, Suite 1900, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M2N 6L7. Our material tangible fixed assets (substantially all of which are pledged as security under our credit agreement) are described in note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.

Item 4A.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
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Item 5.    Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

CELESTICA INC.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020

The following Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) should be read in conjunction with our 2020 audited consolidated financial statements (2020 AFS), which we prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Unless otherwise noted, all dollar amounts are expressed in United States (U.S.) dollars. The information in this discussion is provided as of February 22, 2021 unless we indicate otherwise. 
Certain statements contained in this MD&A constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (U.S. Exchange Act), and contain forward-looking information within the meaning of Canadian securities laws. Such forward-looking information includes, without limitation, statements related to: anticipated and potential adverse impacts resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 and related mutations (COVID-19); our priorities, intended areas of focus, targets, objectives, and goals; trends in the electronics manufacturing services (EMS) industry and our segments (including the components thereof), and their anticipated impact; the anticipated impact of specified adverse market conditions in each of our segments (and/or component businesses) and near term expectations (positive and negative); anticipated restructuring actions; the funding of our restructuring provision; the anticipated annualized impact of disengagements related to our Connectivity & Cloud Solutions segment portfolio review (CCS Review); our anticipated financial and/or operating results; our growth and diversification strategies and plans (and potential hindrances thereto); our credit risk; the anticipated impact of program wins, transfers, losses or disengagements; anticipated expenses, capital expenditures and other working capital requirements and contractual obligations; our intended repatriation of certain undistributed earnings from foreign subsidiaries; the relocation of our Hong Kong data center; the potential impact of tax and litigation outcomes; our anticipated ability to use certain net operating losses; intended investments in our business and associated risks; the potential impact of the pace of technological changes, customer outsourcing, program transfers, and the global economic environment; expectations with respect to cash deposits; the intended method of funding subordinate voting share (SVS) repurchases; materials constraints; the lease for our temporary and new corporate headquarters; Toronto transition costs; the impact of our outstanding indebtedness; liquidity and the sufficiency of our capital resources; our intention (when in our discretion) to settle outstanding equity awards with SVS; our financial statement estimates and assumptions; recently-issued accounting pronouncements and amendments; the potential impact of price reductions and longer payment terms; our compliance with covenants under our credit facility; interest rates; the potential adverse impacts of events outside of our control, including, among others: Britain's departure from the European Union (Brexit), policies or legislation instituted or proposed by the former or new administration in the U.S, uncertainty surrounding the impact of the new administration in the U.S., recent tariffs on items imported into the U.S. and related countermeasures, an